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TYPEWRITING 

AND 

COMPUTER OPERATION 

OFFICE SECRETARYSHIP - OSS 

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 
HIGHER SECONDARY - SECOND YEAR 



A publication under 

Government of Tamilnadu 

Distribution of Free Textbook Programme 

(NOT FOR SALE) 



Untouchability is a sin 
Untouchability is a crime 
Untouchability is a inhuman 




< ^E5S^ 



TAMILNADU 

TEXTBOOK CORPORATION 

College Road, Chennai - 600 006 



©Government of Tamilnadu 
First Edition -2011 



CHAIRPERSON 

A. Sonny Lionel 

Sr. Vocational Teacher 

Voorhees Hr.Sec.School, 

Vellore - 632 001 



REVIEWER 

P.R.Balaji 

Vocational Teacher 

Islamiah Hr.Sec.School, 

Pernambut-635 810 

Vellore District 



AUTHORS 



V. Parimala Devi 

Vocational Teacher 
Govt. Boys.Hr.Sec.SchooI, 
Alangayam - 635 701 
Vellore District 



D. Kumar 

Vocational Teacher 
Govt .Hr.Sec.School, 
Kaveripakkam - 632 508 
Vellore District 



This book has been prepared by The Directorate of School 
Education on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu 



This book has been printed on 60 G.S.M. Paper 



Printed by web offset at: 



CONTENT 

PART- A 

Unit Title Page 

1. Key Board 1 

2. Typing Practice: 

(i) From Sentences - 2 

(ii) From Paragraphs - 3 

(iii) From Scripts - 4 

3. Speed Practice - First Paper 5 

PART - B 

Short Notes on the Topics 26 

Abbreviations & Symbols 28 

1 Statistical Statements - (Vertical) 33 

2. Balance Sheets: 39 
Typical forms of Auditor's Certificate 39 
(i) Assets and Liabilities 40 
(ii) Statement of Income and Expenditure 48 
(iii) Profit and Loss Account 57 

3. Display: 

(i) Advertisement 63 

(ii) Invitation 67 

(iii) Notice 72 

(iv) Programme 75 

4. Official Letters/ Government Orders 

(i) Demi Official Letter 78 

(ii) Government Order 85 

(iii) Official Notification 93 

(iv) Official Proceedings 98 

(iii) 



PART - C 
1. TYPEWRITING - PRACTICAL : I 
MECHANISM : 

1 . Typewriter and its parts 1 03 

2. History of the Typewriter - Kinds of Typewriter- 104 
Advantages of Typewriter - Identification of Typewriter. 

3. Key Board: Character keys - Non-Character keys and 105 
their uses: Shift keys, Shift Lock, Marginal Releaser, 

Back Spacer, Tabulator, Ribbon Position Indicator, 
Key Releaser, Space Bar and Shift systems. 

4. Carriage: Size of Carriage Cylinder - Thumb knobs - 108 
Ratchet Wheel - Detent Roller - Detent Release Lever - 

Variable line spacer - Line space pawl - Line space 
Gauge - Line Space Knob - Reed Rollers - Marginal 
stops -Typewriter Scales - Paper Table - Rubber feet - 
Method of typing - Eraser. 

5. Machine: Mainspring Drum - Draw cord Type Guide- 112 
Type faces/Type heads Ribbon movement. 

6. Cleaning & Oiling: Cleaning Materials - care taking of 115 
Typewriter - Upkeep and Maintenance - Packing care. 

7. Envelope Addressing: Block Method - Indent 117 

Method - Advantages - Pin Code Number. 

8. Rocker Mechanism: Loose Dog - Rigid Dog - Escapement 119 
Wheel - Pinion Wheel - Type Bar -Carriage Rack - Segment - 
Type Basket - Key Tension - Carriage Tension - Bell 
Mechanism -Jerky /Sluggish Movement - Alignment & Etc., 

9. Duplicator and its Mechanism: Feed Tray - Receiving 128 
Tray- Operating Lever Off/:eaver - Handle - Silk Cloth - 
Impression Roller - Backing Sheet Lever - Cylindrical Drum- 
Margin Adjusting Knobs - Side Margin Plate -Printing screw- 
Wave Roller. 

10. Respectable Terms.... 132 

11. Mechanism Questions & Answers / Model Questions 133 

(iv) 



2. COMPUTER OPERATION - PRACTICAL 11: 

Knowing About Computer 

An Introduction to StarOffice Writer and The following 
8 Chapters can be taught and learnt from The Text Book : 
"Computer Science, Higher Secondary Second Year, 
Tools Volume- I" Published by Tamiinadu Text Book 
Corporation, Chennai-600 006. 

CHAPTER : 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO STAROFFICE WRITER 143 

An Introduction of StarOffice - Creating a New Document 
Using StarOffice Writer - Entering Text In the Document - 
Saving, Closing and Opening Documents - Moving Around 
the document - Scrolling the document - Correcting 
Mistakes - Inserting Text - Selecting Text - Moving the 
Text - Copying the Text -Finding and Replacing the 
Text - Summary - Exercises 

CHAPTER : 2 TEXT FORMATTING 150 

Formatting Options - Paragraph Alignment - Indenting 
Text - Modifying Line spacing - Creating Bullets and 
Numbered List - Formatting Using Styles - StarOffice 
Help - Summary - Exercises 

CHAPTER: 3 CORRECTING SPELLING MISTAKES 159 

Checking Spelling while Typing - Checking the spelling 
after the Document is Typed - AutoCorrect Option - 
Creating Autocorrect Entry - Summary - Exercises. 

CHAPTER : 4 WORKING WITH TABLES 163 

Creating a simple table - entering Data on the table - 
Addition or Deleting Rows and Columns - Changing 
the Row/Column Width - Table formatting toolbar - 
Summary - Exercises 



(v) 



CHAPTER : 5 PAGE FORMATTING 169 

Orientation - Creating a Header and Footer - 
Summary - Exercises 

CHAPTER : 6 SPREADSHEET 173 

Introduction - Working with StarOffice Calc - Editing 
The Data in the Working Sheet -Creating formulae - 
Fill Command - cell referencing - Using functions - Date 
Arithmetic - Formatting the Worksheet - Changing? Column 
Width and row Height - Inserting Cells, Rows and 
Columns -deleting Cells, Rows and Columns Inserting 
Pictures and special Characters - drawing in a Spreadsheet 
Inserting footer - summary - Exercises 

CHAPTER : 7 INTRODUCTION TO MULTIMEDIA 190 

What is Multimedia? - Multimedia Applications - 
Multimedia elements - Sound , Animation, and Video - 
Using Multimedia Elements in Content - Summary - 
Exercises 

CHAPTER : 8 PRESENTATION 193 

Introduction - A Basic Presentation - Managing a 
Presentation - Customizing Presentation - Printing 
Presentations - Summary- Exercises 

III. ANNUAL COMMON EXAM - MODEL QUESTION PAPER: 206 

IV. FOR PRACTICE 214 

V. SYLLABUS 218 



(iv) 



PART - A 



1. KEY BOARD 



EH i 

BE 



TABULATOR BAR 



tab ; 



men 







B^BEGJBLiCEECJG 



LUEEEEEEE 



BEQQBB 




m 




Ra.i 




SHJFT 



2. Typing Practice: 
2. (i) From Sentences: 
Type the following sentences (Thirukural) each ten times 

In Praise of God 

(Translation of Thirukural) 

1. A begins the alphabet 

And God, primordial, the world. 

2. What use is that learning which does not lead 
To the blessed feet of Pure intelligence? 

3. Long life on earth is theirs who clasp 
The glorious flower-embedded feet. 

4. Never harmed are those who clasp the feet 
Of the one beyond likes and hates 

5. The delusions caused by good deeds and bad 
Shall never be theirs who seek God's praises. 

6. Long life is theirs who tread the path 
Of him who conquered the five senses 

7. None shall be free from carping care 
Save those at the feet beyond compare 

8. The feet of the Lord with the Virtue-wheet 
Will help to cross the sea of birth 

9. Palsied and useless the head unbowed 
At the feet of the God of eightfold virtue 

10. The ocean of births can be crossed by those 
Who clasp God's feet, and non else. 



2. (ii) From Paragraphs: 

Type the following Paragraphs each ten times 

Positive Believing 

What is the difference between positive thinking and positive 
believing? What if you could actually listen to your thoughts? Are they 
positive or negative? How areyou programmingyour mindforsuccessor 
failure? The way in which you think has a profound effect on your 
performance. 

Having a positive attitude and being motivated is a choice we make 
everyday. Living a positive life is not easy., but then neither is negative living. 
Given a choice, I would rather go for a positive living. Positive thinking helps 
you use your abilities to thefullest. 

Positive believing is more than positive thinking. It is knowing that 
positive thinking will work. Positive believing is an attitude of confidence 
that comes with preparation. 

Having a positive attitude without making the effort is nothing more than 
having a wishful dream. The following illustrates positive believing. 

It is easy to succeed today. If you want to get ahead in life, go the extra 
mile. There is no com petition on the extra mile. Areyou willing to a little more 
thanyougetpaidfor? 

Praise the God from the heavens, praise him in the heights above, 
Praise Him, Sun and moon, praise him, all you shining stars, Praise Him, all 
highest heavens and you waters above the skies. Letthempraisethenameof 
the God for he commanded and they were created. He set them in place for 
ever and ever: He gave adecreethatwi 1 1 never pass away Praise the God from 
the earth, you great sea creatures and all oceans depths, Lightning and hail, 
snow and clouds stormy winds that do his bidding, you mountain and all hills, 
fruit trees and all cedars, Wild animals and all cattle, small creatures and 
flying birds Kings of the earth and all nations, you princes and all rulers on 
earth, Young men and maidens, old men and children. Let them praise the 
name of the God, for his name alone is exalted: 



2. (iii) From Scripts: 

The following script to be practiced by typing ten times 

,^.'i Iua/jc . v>^ f«Vs/^lyie^£ Obw ^o-p^cJLtv to of© 

H" %fc*vJ&<v^\>e-N/ <*-i\ Tvw^l^ owe. VwY "ft*. ^ <w~-e . 

4? Ui>w\\ Tt» j^V oYJ&V >t*v^\ . ^PowV ivo^isL - 
*e S <=^v^ do IK 



3. SPEED PRACTICE - First Paper 
Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees: 



Mother Teresa was born in 
Agnes Bojaxhiu in an Albanian village 
in 1910 and brought up in a family 
which was highly spiritual. In 1928, 
she left home to become a novice of 
Loreto in Dublin, Ireland. She heard 
about Calcutta and expressed 's 
Calcutta and began teaching in a 
novitiate of Loreto nuns in Darjeeling, 
the Himalayan town. After two years, 
she changed her religious vows of 
poverty, chastity and obedience and 
changed her name to Teresa and 
started teaching at St. Mary School, 
Calcutta. 

It was in 1946 mother was 
inspired by Jesus to dedicate her 
life t the poor and within two years, 
she was working in the city's slums, 
picking up the sick and the dying 
from the streets. In 1950, she 
founded the Missionaries of 
Charity. Mother Teresa also came 
to be honored several tiroes across 
the world. She won. the Nobel 
Peace Prize, Bharat Ratna and 
Padma Shree to name a few. 
Mother's embalmed body was kept 
at the St. Tomas Church for a week 
while a grief-stricken nation 
proposed to accord to her a State 
funeral Thousands of mourners 
patiently waited in long, serpentine 
queues outside the church 
clutching garlands and bouquets, 
for one last look at Mother. On 
September 13, aristocrats and 
commoners alike, assembled in 
Calcutta to bid farewell to the 
century's greatest many as in. 
Several first ladies. Presidents, 
Prime Ministers, Queensland 
government functionaries from all 
over theworld cameof dignity into 
the hundreds and thousands of poor 
peoplesheattendedtoinher87 



yearslonglife.The87 yearoldnun 
died on September 5 just the way 
she lived simply and quietly. Just 
after her dinner, she complained 
ofapainintheback. Asthenewsof 
Mothers death broke out he 
hundreds of thousands of men, 
women and children gathered 
outside the Missionaries 
headquarters. To get a glimpse of 
their beloved Mother who all 
through her lift loved and cared for 
the sick, dying, destitute, leprosy 
patients. 

She brought up in a family 
which was highly spiritual. In 1928, 
she left home to become a novice of 
Loreto in Dublin, Ireland. She heard 
about Calcutta and expressed her 
wish to come to the city. Next year, 
her wish was fulfilled and she arrived 
in Calcutta and began teaching in a 
novitiate of Loreto nuns in Darjeeling. 
She invited criticisms, too. Some of 
her worst critics like Christopher 
Hitechiens, the controversial author 
of "The Missionary Position: Mother 
Teresa in Theory and Practice" said 
she did not hesitate to accept funds 
from the world's despots and shady 
businesses. He made the same point 
in the British Television documentary. 
"Hell's Angel". A visibly pained 
Mothersimplysaid: "Forgive them for 
they know not what they do". Strictly 
speaking, the news of Mother's 
death did no come as a surprise. In 
fact, it was expected. She was 
hospitalized several times in, the past 
few years with heart, long and with 
Mothers consent, the Missionaries 
chose another nun, the sixty two year 
old Sister Nirmala one of the 
foundress's favourities to run the 
Missionaries' spiritual empire that 
touches over hundred countries. 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees: 



Many illnesses are caused by 
irregular meals or from the habit of eating 
whatever catches the fancy or happens 
to come in handy. Such "carelessness" 
results in decreased efficiency too. You 
are what you eat. Hence, eating good 
meals on time is very important. 
Scientific meal planning is not too difficult 
It may appear complicated to a beginner 
when he or she is told that a complete 
and balanced diet is essential to meet the 
needs of the individual. The needs of a 
person depend on his or her age, sex, 
body size type, temperament, nature of 
work, the climate and the health of his or 
her mind and body. The term daily diet 
means all the food a person eats during 
the day. Die may refer to either food 
ordinarily eaten or that selected with 
reference to a particular state of health. A 
few simple rules combine all these 
requirements, and a little practice makes 
correct meal planning second nature. 

Nutritionists define good meals as 
those which supply nutrition to meet body 
needs, protect the body against disease 
and are enjoyable to eat. With the 
knowledge of nutrition, one can easily 
choose food to fulfill the first two 
requirements; yet how much one enjoys 
one's food depends on one's taste and 
attitude in eating. You can train yourself 
to enjoy all essential foods. It is not 
clearly understood why some children 
seem to dislike certain foods. It is not 
clearly understood why some children 
seem to dislike certain foods. But 
experience shows that a persistent in 
overcoming most dislikes is rewarding. 

Researchers have discovered 
that the custom of three meals a day is 
based on convenience and not on 
biological needs. Tests show that blood 
sugar concentration and muscular 
efficiency are lowest before breakfast 



and remain at this level until a meal is 
taken. After eating, blood sugar rises 
sharply and efficiency increases but the 
two fall again to a low level within two 
and a half to four hours unless another 
meal is taken. From these facts it 
appears that a high level of energy can 
be maintained by eating every two and a 
half to three hours throughout the day 
Experiments on factory workers have 
proved this to be true. To day many 
factories, offices and schools, have 
incorporated in their schedules a 
"nutrition" or "snack" period mid- 
forenoon and mid-afternoon. 

The bed time snack is a matter of 
individual preference. To avoid 
interfering with sleep, it should either be 
omitted or be very light and contain light 
food such as milk or fruit. An over weight 
person and the elderly should avoid food 
before retiring. It is unfortunate that 
breakfast is so often slighted. People 
who stay in bed, late, rush with dressing 
and eat on the run. They are doing 
themselves great injustice. You need a 
good breakfast more than any other 
meal in order to bring your blood sugar, 
concentration and muscular efficiency to 
peak level. It always pays to make 
breakfast a heavy meal and discipline 
yourself to get up early enough to eat it in 
a relaxed way. Most people find it easier 
to plan three main meals a day making 
them not too heavy, and balancing each 
one. If there are to be two or three snack 
meals, they should be planned along 
with the main meals. The snack is a 
good way to get in the vitamins and 
mineral foods. Nutritionists recommend 
as snacks, foods such as milk soups, 
stew, fruit juices, fruits and salad 
vegetables rather than resorting to 
candy, pastries, ice cream and other 
sweet or starchy foods. 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



The major objectives of 
nationalization of commercial banks as 
set out by the Prime Minister may be 
summarized removing the control over 
commercial banks by few large industrial 
houses. Providing adequate credit to 
the hitherto neglected sectors such as 
agriculture, small business, small scale 
and professional. To introduced 
professional management in 
commercial banking. To provide 
incentives and stimulus to young and 
qualified entrepreneurs. To provide 
adequate training and reasonable serve 
ice conditions for bank employees. The 
banks have really lived up to the 
expectations of Parliament and the 
Prime Minister. 

The commercial banks have 
become powerful institutions 
contributing for agricultural and rural 
development and also the enlistment of 
weaker sections of the rural community. 
Some of the significant achievements 
are rapid branch expansion, expansion 
of rural credit, strengthening of the co- 
operative sector and support to village 
and rural industries. The commercial 
banks in India had organized 
themselves along the lines and patterns 
of British banks. They are more 
comfortable with trade and large 
industrial houses than with the 
agriculture sector and small industries. A 
number of changes has taken place in 
moral areas after moral areas after 
commencement of the planning era. 
The concept of rural development has 
neither been concise nor consistent. 
Gandhiji's ideas are different from those 
of Jawaharlal Nehru and they are again 
different from the ideas of Indira Gandhi. 

These three dominant 
personalities, who played a significant 



country, have left their imprints. 
Tumultuous and far reaching changes 
have taken place after the 
nationalization of commercial banks. 
Even before 1969, agriculture and 
allied activities were experiencing rapid 
growth under Credit Council pointed out 
a large credit gap measurers to improve 
and monitor the flow recommended a 
multi agency approach instead of 
depending on the co-operative credit 
societies alone, While the banks prior to 
nationalization were reluctant to enter 
rural areas and lend for rural activities in 
support of various governmental 
programmes. 

Even during the British rule, the 
Government had recognized the 
importance Of agriculture and 
developed the Co-operative 
organizations to take care of agricultural 
credit. At that point of time and perhaps 
up to 1 975, rural development was seen 
merely as agricultural development. It is 
only there after that the concept of rural 
development has undergone a 
considerable change, covering the 
entire gamut of rural activities. Various 
committees such as the Rural Banking 
Enquiry Committee, Rural Credit 
Survey Committee and Rural Credit 
Review Committee, have all talked 
about the development and 
strengthening of co-operative for 
agricultural sector and the need fro a 
change in policy in the wake of the green 
revolution which necessitated 
increased credit for adopting improved 
methods of cultivation, /the cost of 
cultivation had gone up with the use of 
high yielding seeds pesticides and 
fertilizers and improved means of 
irrigation. The co-operative societies 
could not meet the ever increasing 
demand for credit. 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees: 



Analyzing theories of Tamil 
origins, historians have declared that it 
may be taken as fairly certain that the 
Tamils were indigenous to south India. 
The collective impact of the 
geographical, archeological, epigraph 
factors on the richness of the cal, 
environmental and socio - cultural 
factors on the richness of the hoary 
civilization of the Tamils is still being 
studied. This study generally justifies 
the aforementioned stand. The native 
people of these land speak the Tamil 
language, which is perhaps the only 
instance in history of an ancient 
classical tongue having successfully 
survived as a spoken language for a 
period over two thousand five hundred 
years with its basic structure remaining 
almost unaltered and intact during this 
long period. 

Tamil is the oldest representative 
language of the Dravidian family. Its 
vocabulary and systemized grammar 
are far more advanced when compared 
to the other languages of the Dravidian 
stock. Tamil developed ina a mature 
literature at least a thousand five 
hundred years before Telugu and a 
thousand years before karnataka. Unto 
the tenth century Tamil was the spoken 
language in kerala. Tamil genius was 
conspicuous not merely in the sphere of 
language but also in that of literature. 
Incidentally it may also be added that the 
ancient script system of the Tamils 
denotes the antiquity of the indigenous 
system of phonology of the Tamils 
denotes the antiquity of the indigenous 
pre-Christian era. It is noteworthy that 
the scientific evolution of and 
consonants in general but particularly 



Tolkappiyam. In no other script of any 
language do we find more then five 
nasals. 

With a scientific system of writing 
the Tamils had evolved an original and 
outstanding literature conference 
basically touching literature upon the 
geographical and emotional aspects of 
human existence the rich civilization of 
these people, diced much good poetry. 
Much of this poetical lore has been lost 
but some has survived. This Survival is 
a fragment of a fragment some of what 
was reduced to writing has also been 
lost. It is from this fragmentary survival 
which exceeds twenty six thousand 
lines, that we get some glimpses into the 
life, which men and women led in the 
Tamil land in those far off days. They 
speak of villages and cities, cottage and 
mansions, kings and chieftains courts 
and poets, merchants and caravans, 
soldiers and armies, ships ad chieftains, 
courts and armies ships and fleets, war 
and love, dress and jewelers, songs and 
dances, and arts and crafts. On the 
whole, the people seemed to have; 
lived joyously. The land was but 
sparsely occupied and there were large 
tracts of mountain and other regions. 
There was how-ever a fairly large 
number of villages and hamlets, and 
cities of importance. A gradation of 
geographical features was available in 
the Tamil land from the hills to the sea 
including jungles the cities grew in size 
and developed in culture by contacts 
with people both from overseas and 
over-land. This aspect has bestowed 
upon the heritage of Tamilians 
dichotomy of high individualism and 
conservatism, combined with a gracious 
liberalism. 



8 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees: 



The country 64 crores of 
population, with 81 % among them living 
in the villages and the remaining in the 
urban areas. Any major development, in 
the development of the country, should 
naturally take place in the rural areas. 
The Five Year Plans and other 
development programmes, have laid 
emphasis on the development of rural 
areas and the growth of rural economy. 
Electricity, is universally recognized, as 
the major instrument of socio-economic 
changes, in any country and its 
contribution, in the face lift of the rural 
areas by no means, is a small 
achievement, but more importantly an 
economic necessity, It constitutes a key 
infrastructure for the development of the 
agrarian economy. It makes more livable 
and village occupation more attractive, 
apart from helping to increase production 
of land through filed exploitation of 
ground water resources. 

Rural electrification; has come a long 
way, since it was taken up as a planned 
programme, after the country became 
independent, in recent years. Progress 
has been phenomenal. While there is a 
general awareness of the big strides 
made in this crucial field, not all people 
realize the vitality it has imparted to the 
drought with its disastrous 
consequences, on the country. But for, 
an extensive rural electrification the 
consequences of the drought spread 
over large areas would have been 
severe. In fact, as a consequence of the 
drought situation the government had to 
accord a high priority, to the programme 
of rural electrification, with the sole aim of 
increasing the agricultural production, 
through energisation of the pumpsets. 
An emphasis of rural electrification is 
also reflected in the sharp increase in the 
plan outlays in the Five Year Plans. The 



outlay for the Six Five Year Plan is 
expected to both more than previous 
plans. This underscores the growing 
awareness and recognitions of the 
importance of economic development of 
the country. 

With increasing investment, it has 
been possible to electrify more than 44 
percent of the total villages in the 
country. Also over 40 lakhs of pumpsets 
have been energized with a view to 
boost the agricultural production. The 
electrification of the villages and the 
connection to the pump-sets have been 
carried out simultaneously. The 
energisation of the pumpsets have been 
impressive in all these years. 

Rural electrification has 
undergone shifts in emphasis from time 
to time to meet the felt need and 
requirements of socioeconomic 
development from earlier village 
electrification, emphasis was shifted to 
energisation of pumpsets. In view of the 
priority accorded, to the integrated rural 
development and welfare, the focus 1 of 
rural electrification is not only on 
increasing agriculture production, but 
also on promotion of rural industries and 
creation of opportunities. For increased 
rural employment, besides the provision 
of amenities such as protected water 
supply system. Viewed in this context, 
what rural electrification has achieved 
so far, is by no means insignificant. In 
pattern, pace and progress is a name of 
pride for any developing nation, like 
India. In the villages, which have 
received electricity changes have 
occurred at a fast pace. 



9 



Type the following in double line s 

The present generation and the 
coming generations have to solve three 
grave problems, namely, population 
poverty and pollution if they have to 
survive. Pollution being the most 
dangerous problem likes cancer in which 
death is sure but slow. Environment 
pollution is assuming dangerous 
proportions all through the globe and India 
is not free from this poisonous disease. 
This is the gift of modern living, 
industrialization and urbanization. Unless 
timely action is taken we have a forbid and 
bleak future for the world. The word noise 
is derived from the Latin term nausea. It 
has been defined as unwanted sound, a 
potential hazard to health and 
communication dumped into the 
environment with regard to the adverse 
effect it may have on unwilling ears.i 
Noise is defined as unwanted sound. 
Sound, which pleases the listeners, is 
music and that which causes pain and 
annoyance is noise. 

In chambers 21st Century 
Dictionary the definition of noise has 
undergone a change. Noise pollution 
stands carved out as phrase separately 
from noise. The two are defined as 
under:Noise- a sound; a harsh 
disagreeable sound, or such sound; a din. 
Pollution- an excessive or annoying 
degree of noise in a particular area, e.g. 
from traffic or aero plane engines. 
Pollution is a noise derived from the verb 
pollute. Section 2 (c ) of the Environment 



pacing with a margin often degrees:- 

(Protection ) Act, 1986 defines 
environmental pollution to mean the 
presence in the environment of any 
environmental pollutant. Section 2 (b) of 
the said Act defines environmental 
pollutant to means any solid, liquid or 
gaseous substance present in such 
concentration as may be ,or tends to be 
injurious to environment. 

A decibel is the standard for the 
measurement of noise. The zero on a 
decibel scale is at the threshold of 
hearing, the lowest sound pressure that 
can be heard, on the scale ace. To smith, 
20 db is whisper, 40 db the noise in a 
quiet office . 60 db is normal 
conversation, 80 db is the level at which 
sound becomes physically painful. The 
Noise quantum of some of the cities in 
our country indicate their pitch in decibel 
in the nosiest areas of corresponding 
cities, e.g. Delhi- 80 db, Kolkata - 
87,Bombay-85, Chennai-89 db etc. 

Broadly speaking , the noise 
pollution has two sources, i.e. industrial 
and non- industrial. The industrial source 
includes the noise from various 
industries and big machines working at a 
very high speed and high noise intensity. 
Non- industrial source of noise includes 
the noise created by transport/vehicular 
traffic and the neighborhood noise 
generated by various noise pollution can 
also be divided in the categories , 
namely, natural and manmade. Most 
leading noise sources will fall into the 
following categories: 



10 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin often degrees:- 



Now-a-days , the problem of low 
flying military aircraft has added a new 
dimension to community annoyance, as 
the nation seeks to improve its nap-of the- 
earth aircraft operations over national 
parks, wilderness areas , and other areas 
previously unaffected by aircraft noise has 
claimed national attention over recent 
years. 

Apartment dwellers are often 
annoyed by noise in their homes, 
especially when the building is not well 
designed and constructed. In this case, 
internal building noise from plumbing, 
boilers, generators, air conditioners, and 
fans, can be audible and annoying. 
Improperly insulated walls and ceilings can 
reveal the sound of-amplified music, 
voices, footfalls and noisy activities from 
neighboring units. External noise from 
emergency vehicles, traffic, refuse 
collection, and other city noises can be a 
problem for urban residents, especially 
when windows are open or insufficiently 
glazed. Certain household equipment, 
such as vacuum cleaners and some 
kitchen appliances have been and 
continue to be noisemakers, although their 
contribution to the daily noise dose is 
usually not very large. On Human Being, 
Animal and Property: Noise has always 
been with the human civilization but it was 
never so obvious, so intense, so varied & 



so pervasive as it is seen in the last of this 
century. Noise pollution makes men more 
irritable. The effect of noise pollution is 
multifaceted & inter related. The effects of 
Noise Pollution on Human Being, Animal 
and property are as follows: 

Regarding the impact of noise on 
human efficiency there are number of 
experiments which print out the fact that 
human efficiency increases with noise 
reduction. A study by Sinha & Sinha in 
India suggested that reducing industrial 
booths could improve the quality of their 
work. Thus human efficiency is related 
with noise. II Lack of concentration:- For 
better quality of work there should be 
concentration , Noise causes lack of 
concentration. In big cities , mostly all the 
offices are on main road. The noise of 
traffic or the loud speakers of different 
types of horns divert the attention of the 
people working in offices. 

The effect of nose on audition is 
well recognized. Mechanics , locomotive 
drivers, telephone operators etc. All have 
their hearing . Impairment as a result of 
noise at the place of work. Physicists, 
physicians & psychologists are of the view 
that continued exposure to noise level 
above. 80 to 100 db is unsafe, Loud noise 
causes temporary or permanent 
deafness. Now is well known to all that 
plants are similar to human being. They 
are also as sensitive as man. There should 
be cool & peaceful environment for their 
better growth. 



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Article 21 of the Constitution 
guarantees life and personal liberty to all 
persons. It Is well settled by repeated 
pronouncements of the Supreme Court 
that right to life enshrined in Article 21 is 
not of mere survival or existence. It 
guarantees a right of persons to life with 
human dignity. Any one who wishes to live 
in peace, comfort and quiet within his 
house has a right to prevent the noise as 
pollutant reaching him. Right to 
Information:- 

Chapter IV of Indian Penal code 
deals with offences relating to public 
health, safety, ....decency , morals under 
Sections 268, 269, 270, 279, 280, 287, 
288, 290 291 294. Noise pollution can be 
penalized with the help of above section. 
Private remedies suits in the area may 
related to public nuisance under A299. 
This article punishment in case of Public 
nuisance law of torts covers. A person is 
guilty of public nuisance who does any act 
or is guilty of an illegal omission which 
causes any common injury, danger, or 
annoyance to the pubic or to the people in 
general who dwell or occupy property in 
the vicinity or which must necessarily 
cause injury, obstruction danger or 
annoyance to persons who may have 
occasion to use any public right. A 
common nuisance is not excused on the 
ground that it causes some convenience 
or advantage. Who ever commits a public 



nuisance in any case not otherwise 
punishable by this code, shall be 
punished with fine, which may extend to 
Rs. 200. Under law of torts , a civil suit can 
be filed claiming damages for the 
nuisance. For filing a suit under law of 
torts a plaintiff is required to comply with 
some of the requirement of tort of 
nuisance which are as follows In Christe 
Vs Davey The extent of noise & the 
amount of disturbance caused there by 
was ignored & it was held that the noise 
which arose due to the practice of lawful 
profession, & without any malice, could 
not be considered to be actionable 
nuisance. In Hollywood Silver Fox Farm 
Ltd. Vs Emmett It was held that presence 
of malice was a factor in determining 
liability for noise amounting to nuisance. 
The court said that even on his won land 
was nuisance, & the defendant was liable 
in damages. 

The Factories Act does not contain 
any specific provision for noise control. 
However, unde the Third Schedule 
Sections 89 and 90 of the Act, noise 
induced hearing loss, is mentioned as 
notifiable disease. Similarly, under the 
Modal Rules, limits for noise exposure for 
work zone area have been prescribed. 



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The word virus is too familiar to 
us and everybody would like to avoid 
coming in contact with a virus. This is 
because viruses cause diseases not 
only in human beings but also in 
animals and plants. Virus is a Latin 
word meaning slimy liquid or poison. 
The list of diseases caused by viruses 
is a long one. Perhaps the most 
dreaded disease caused by viruses in 
human beings is Acquired Immune 
Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Some of 
the other diseases caused by viruses 
in human beings are infantile 
paralysis, dengue, hepatitis B, 
influenza, common cold herpes yellow 
fever and small pox. Viruses are 
parasites. They need a living cell host 
for reproduction. Some viruses in fact 
bacteria only and they are known as 
bacteria-eaters. 

The biological nature of virus was 
first indicated by a Russian scientist 
Dimitry. Ivanovsky and a Dutch 
scientist Martinus W.Beijedrinck in the 
last decade of the nineteenth century. 
All viruses contain nucleic acid either 
DNA or RNA and protein . it may be 
noted that living cells contain both RNA 
and DNAbutavirus has only one ofthe 
two. Based on the type of nucleic acid 
that a virus contains, it is classified as 
DNAor RNA virus. The size and shape 
of virus are determined by the amount 
and arrangement of nucleic acids and 
proteins. They vary in diameter from 
20 nanometres to 400 nanometres 



(one nanometer is one billionth of a 
metre). Viruses are too small to be 
seen with naked eyes. With a few 
exceptions they cannot be seen even 
with ordinary or optical microscope. 

The vaccinia virus can be visualized 

under a powerful optical microscope. 

Viruses come in various shapesrods, 

threads, spheroids, polyhedrons and 

tadpole-like structure. Some viruses 

come in combined shapes, for 

example, a virus may have a 

polyhedral head attached to a rod-like 

tail. The infective part of a virus, when 

it is outside the host ell is called the 

virion. It contains atleast one protein 

synthesized by a specific gene of the 

nucleic acid of the virus. All viruses 

have a protein coat called a capsid 

around the nucleic acid. Some virus 

like disease causing organisms which 

have only nucleic acid and no 

structural proteins are known as 

viriods. It protects the nucleic acid of 

the virus from digestion by enzymes 

called necklaces. 

It help the virion to penetrate 

through the cell surface membrane or 

in some cases to inject the infectious 

nucleic acid into the interior of the host 

cell. It provided sites on its surface 

which recognize the receptors on the 

surface of the host cells for attaching 

the iron. Virus is hostspecific, that is. A 

virus may not harm one type of host but 

can severely damage another. 



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special leave to appeal noted that the 
evidence disclosed the emission of smoke 
injurious to health and physical comfort of 
people living or working in the proximity of 
appellant bakery and held this as a case of 
public nuisance. 

In Maulan Mufti Syed and OtherlO 



Judiciary And Noise Pollution In 
Raghunandan Prasad the engine of a 
factory was causing noise so as to be a 
serious nuisance to be the people living in 
the neighborhood the forbade the working 
of engine from 9 P.M. to 5 A.M. In Mauj 
Raghu6 A rice mill working at night during 
season will not disentitle the inhabitants of V. State Of West Bengal AIR 1999 CAL 15 
locality to relief under this section if it is The court held imposition of restriction on 
established that such working is a the use of microphone and loud speakers 
nuisance. In Ram AvtarT The appellant by the state government between 9 pm to 
carried on a trade of auctioning vegetable 7 am which inter alia include recitation of 
in private house the noise caused by the azan on microphone in early hours before 
auctioning caused discomfort to person 7 AM is not violative of Article 25 of 



living in society. An order was passed 
restraining auctioning g of vegetable in the 
their house. 

In Himmat Singh8 Where there 



constitution guaranteeing of freedom of 
religion. Latest authority of supreme court 
is a land mark judgment in the field of 
noise pollution. In Re: Noise Pollutionll 



were fodder tabs in a residential colony to Following important observations have 

which fodder was brought daily during been made by Supreme court regarding 

nights by trucks which were unloaded in the no j se pollution which are discussed, 

morning and fodder was cut during the day Anj| mifta| an en gineerflled this case . 
by electric operated machines. It was held 

that the carrying on the trades causing The amendment empowered the state 

intolerable noises emanating offensive government to permit use of loudspeakers 

smells and spreading dust containing r public address system during night 



articles of fodder cut was public nuisance 
as noise pollution. Some other important 
cases are also have great relevance in this 
regard: In Govind singh9 the court 
examined the emerging parameters of 
public nuisance. The supreme court on 



hours between 10 pm to 12 pm in the mid 
night on or during the cultural or religious 
occasions for a limited period not 
exceeding 15 days. 



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Since the days of Indian Independence, 
the country has duly recognised the 
importance of harnessing Science and 
Technology in a major way. The thrust 
provided to Science and Technology since 
then has been aimed at making it an 
instrument for the growth of socio-economic 
status, agriculture, industry, infrastructure 
and services in the country. Today India is 
one of the top ranking countries in the world 
in the field of technology development. Its 
capability in building nuclear reactors, 
communication, remote sensing satellites 
and guided missiles, just to mention a few is 
unquestionable. The recent nuclear 
explosions at Pokhran have clearly 
established the remarkable potential of our 
country in Science and Technology. 

By demonstrating its capability to 
manufacture and test the most modem 
thermonuclear technique involving boosted 
fission and also weapons of low yield types, 
India is now in a position to design specific 
practical and strategic weapons, it may 
require for its defence. With its wide-ranging 
capabilities, Indian Science and Technology 
has come to be regarded as one of the most 
powerful instruments of growth and 
development, specially in the emerging 
scenario of globalisation and competition. 
The Indian policy and the approach that is 
envisaged in the Ninth Five Year Plan aims 
at exploring new vistas of economic 
prosperity with Science and Technology as 
the main focal point to meet the economic, 
industrial, trade and societal challenges. 

Many of the earlier inputs have been 
very useful for building up a viable 
infrastructure. The Plan seeks modification 
in the existing policies especially with regard 
to the mechanisms of implementation so that 



the benefits emerging from Science and 
Technology must reach all sections of the 
community. The Plan envisages to direct 
all efforts to build and maintain a strong 
science base as a prerequisite for achieving 
technological competence. In this endeavour, 
it is planned to create more centres of 
excellence in institutions of higher learning 
for supply of future manpower and for 
nurturing scientists with exceptional 
capabilities by offering them facilities 
comparable with international standards. 

The Plan envisages execution of 
research programmes in priority areas in a 
mission mode through appropriate 
restructuring and reorientation of many of 
the scientific institutions and laboratories. It 
aims to minimize the hierarchical 
bureaucracy in Research and Development 
institutions. In this regard, several 
measures have been suggested, like 
professional isation of science auditing, 
decentralisation of decision making powers 
and authority of implementation, 
introduction of participative decision making 
processes in the Science and Technology 
institutions, etc. All these would ensure mat 
the activities pertaining to scientific 
management are performed by scientists and 
technologists. Appropriate linkages between 
the industry and the research institutions or 
laboratories help in effective marketing of 
technology. 

The focus of the programmes 
would be to encourage and strengthen 
interaction among Research and 
Development institutions and the user. The 
existence of core technological strengths is 
one of the key elements in the modem global 
interaction. In this context, the plan focusses 
on developing core strengths and 
concentrating on areas where comoeKtive 
strengths can be built 



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The definition bogene has changed over 
the time. The term gene was coined by the 
Danish geneticist Wilhelm Johannsen in 
1909 to refer to the inheritance factor 
responsible for particular character in an 
individual for example, the gene for eye 
colour. It was Grogor Jehann Mendel who 
first formulated a formal concept of genes 
which he designated as factors. A Mendelian 
gene occurs at particular point on a 
particular chromosome and may have 
several variants, each specifying a 
particular form of that character for 
example, the alleles for blue or brown eyes. 
Some alleles show dominance and these 
mask the effect of other alleles known as 
recessive. 

In 1940s, scientists showed that a gene 
could be identified with a particular length 
of DNA. This led the scientists to propose 
the one-gene-one-enzyme principle. But 
then it became known that sometimes 
protein can be made up of several 
polypeptide chainseach polypeptide chain 
representing a specific gene. So, the one- 
gene-one-enzyme principle had to be 
replaced by one-gene-one-polypeptide. 
Today, a gene is either defined as the 
functional segment of DNA that is required 
to synthesise a complete polypeptide chain 
or a unit of selection that determines a 
specific character in an organism on which 
natural selection can act. The visible effects 
of genes are expressed in proteins. Genes 
control the structure of the proteins they 
produce via the genetic code and also the 
amount to be produced and the timing of 
production. Human beings have about one 
lakh genes. 

The number of nucleictides in a 
gene range from two thousand to two crore 
pairs of nucleictides. Genes undergo 
mutation and recombination to produce the 



variation on which the natural sdectioa 
operates. DNA is a complex giant molequle 
that carries the secret of life. It is DNA which 
has all the information needed to build, 
control and maintain a living organism. In 
organism, DNA is organised into 
chromosomes and contained in the cell 
nucleus. It consists of a double helix of two 
strands coiled to each other. The strands are 
made of nucleotide subunits. A nucleotide 
consists of a purine base linked to a sugar 
and a phosphate group. 

The bases on each strand are joined by 
hydrogen bonds and are always paired in the 
same way Adenine always binds with 
thymine and guanine with cytosine. 
Hereditary characteristics of living organism 
are determined by the information encoded 
in DNA. The information is stored by means 
of genetic code that is a specific sequence of 
purine bases along the DNA. The basic 
symbol of the code is a sequence of three 
consecutive bases. The different triplate 
sequences or codons specify the 20 amino 
acids commonly used by celts for protein 
synthesis and give start and stop signals for 
the process. The sequence of codon 
determines the precise order in which amino 
acids are linked up during protein synthesis 
and therefore the kind of protein that is to 
be produced. As there are 4 different bases, 
the maximum possible number ofcodone is 
64. One amino acid may have more than 
one codon. Evidence for the nature of the 
genetic code was provided in the 1960s. As 
the quality of the information differs from 
individual to individual, from species to 
species, it is expected that the composition 
of the DNA would reflect this difference and 
this actually happens. 



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Unemployment in an unde deve- 
loped country is different from unem- 
ployment in a developed country. In 
a developed country the mobility of 
labour is very high. It is trained and 
skilled and there is always unutilised 
productive capacity in the industries. 
As a result, unemployed labour can be 
easily employed in the existing industries. 

The cause of unemployment normally 
happens to be just some defect in the 
working of the economic system. 
Because of a deficiency in effective 
demand the business people feel that 
increased production is not profitable. 
However, if demand rises production 
becomes profitable and as a result, 
unemployed labour is quickly absorbed. 

In an underdeveloped country, say 
India, the problem is entirely different. 
Here unemployment is basically struc- 
tural. That is to say that labour is 
too much in supply as compared with 
land and capital resources with which 
to employ it gainfully. For this 
reason, unemployment here is of chro- 
nic nature and can be cured in the 
long run only through increased 
resources with which to employ this 
labour. Further, labour in India is 
unskilled and as such cannot be 
employed readily in modern industries 
unless trained first. Also labour mobi- 
lity in India is very low because of 
the customs, attachment to soil, un- 
familiarity with the conditions prevail- 
ing in different regions and so on. 
As a result it may be that while in 
some parts of the country labour is 
unemployed in the others there may 
be actual scarcity. 

To put the nature of unemployment 
problem in India into concrete terms, 
mere are basically two sections of the 
unemployed, educated and non-edu- 



cated. And there are further sub- 
divisions of these. The educated un- 
employed are mainly in the urban 
areas and further fall into the cate- 
gories of clerical type and skilled 
type. Non-educated unemployed per- 
sons in the urban areas cannot get 
employment in the cities and have 
a tendency to go back to their villages 
once they came. Therefore, non-edu- 
cated unemployed are mainly in the 
villages and these also mainly in the 
agricultural Held. 

Our economy being mainly agri- 
cultural and our agriculture being 
confined, mainly to one or two crops 
a year the people engaged in it usually 
do not find enough work throughout the year. 
There is the crop-season and there is the lean 
season. This seasonal unemployment could 
have been remedied if people could engage 
themselves in cottage industries. The extent 
of unemployment in India must be assessed 
before we resort to remedies. It has 
been one of the greatest difficulties 
to ascertain the extent of unemploy- 
ment in India. Adequate data have 
not been available for the purpose. 
Employment exchanges are unreliable 
for the purpose. So many people, 
especially the rural people, do not get 
themselves registered with the 
employment exchanges and these 
exchanges do not cover all the cases of 
the unemployed and the disguised 
unemployed nor are they able to tell 
us effectively the handicaps faced by 
labour mobility. 

The real solution lies in long-term 
steps which should check the popula- 
tion growth of the country. But the 
problem cannot wait its solution for 
such a long period. 






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The relationship between a banker 
and his customer is of two kinds, 
namely general relationship and special 
relationship. The relationship between 
a banker and his customer is mainly 
that of debtor and creditor. The 

respective positions depend on the 
state of the account. Normally the 
banker is a debtor and the customer 
is a creditor. The reason is the 
customer generally keeps some 
amount in his account with the bank. 
In other words, customer's account 
generally shows a credit balance. But 
in the case of an overdraft the banker 
is a creditor and customer is a debtor. 
In the case of a fixed deposit account 
the banker is a debtor and the customer 
is a creditor. In the case of a loan 
account the bank is a creditor and the 
customer is a debtor. 

When a customer deposits money, 
it means the bank has borrowed 
money from the customer. The 

amount deposited becomes the 

property of the bank The bank 
can make use of the money as it 
is absolutely at the disposal of the 
bank. In other words, when money 
is deposited in the bank, the ownership 
passed to the bank. The bank under- 
takes to repay on demand a sum 
equal to the amount deposited. But 
the customer has no right to claim 
identical or same coins or notes depo- 
sited by him. The bank can pay the 
amount deposited by him in any 
kind of notes and coins. Thus a 
bank is not a mere depository or 
trustee. 

The debt due by a banker to his 
customer differs from ordinary 
commercial debts in one important 
respect. In the case of ordinary 
commercial debt, demand for payment 
by the creditor is not necessary. In 
other words, the debtor himself has 



to pay money to the creditor. But 
in the case of debt due from a banker, 
demand for payment is necessary. 
In other words, the customer who has 
deposited money in the bank must 
ask the bank to pay money. He must 
demand payment. Then only the bank 
has to pay. Otherwise, the bank may 
close the account of the customer and 
return the amount without notice. 
As a result, it may dishonour cheques 
issued by the customer before the 
closure of (he account. This may 
injure the credit or the reputation of 
the customer. 

When bank accepts money on a 
current account, it promises to honour 
its customer's cheques use in so far 
as the amount is sufficient and available. The 
obligation to repay the amount is limited to 
the branch where the account is kept. In other 
words, customer can issue cheques on 
the branch of the bank where the 
account is kept. A modern bank 
performs a number of services to the 
public and its customers. When a 
customer deposits securities and valu- 
ables for safe custody, the banker 
becomes a trustee. He must return 
the articles deposited to the customer 
in tact. Although the articles are in 
the possession of the banker, the 
ownership lies with the customer. The 
customer can claim them whenever he 
wants. The customer is only a bene- 
ficiary in this case. 

When a banker purchases or sells 
securities on behalf of his customer, 
he is only acting as an agent. The 
customer is the principal and the 

banker an agent. Similarly, when a 
banker collects cheques, dividends or 
bills on behalf of his customer, he 
is acting as an agent of the customer. 



18 



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During the period 1895-1905, many 
path breaking discoveries were made which 
not only ushered in revolutions in several 
disciplines of science but also changed our 
very understanding of some of the prevailing 
concepts in science. The discovery of 
electron by Jospeh John Thomson in 1897 
was one such discovery. In fact, the discovery 
of electron is one of the greatest discoveries 
of modern physics The electron was the first 
of fundamental constituents of all matter to 
be proposed and in the last hundred years, 
it has withstood all the tests of elementarily. 
The discovery of electron has not only 
revolutionised scientific thought but also our 
ways of life. Once electron was proposed as 
a fundamental constituent of matter, the 
scientists started building models of atomic 
structure. Atoms in their normal states are 
not electrically charged. So, as the electrons 
are negatively charged, it became obvious 
that the atoms also cany a charge of positive 
electricity to counterbalance the negative 
charge. Gradually, the physicists built up 
an idea how these charges were arranged in 
an atom. Among these models, the 
Rutherford model had the most lasting 
influence Rutherford discovered that the 
atom consisted of a heavy positively charged 
core surrounded by electrons. The existence 
of proton was recognised in 1914. 

In 1931, neutron was discovered by 
James Chadwick and the number of 
elementary particles rose to three i.e., 
electron, proton and neutron. However, with 
the advent of particle accelerators, hundreds 
of so called elementary particles were 
discussed. To scientists, it was a real shock. 
They were not prepared to face so many 
elementary particles. From the very 
beginning of human civilisation, the idea of 
fewer basic constituents of nature has 



fascinated man. To overcome this 
complexity, a new model viz , quark model 
was proposed. According to this model, all 
the particles experiencing strong 
interactions are made of still smaller 
constituents called quarks. The idea that 
the protons and neutrons are really 
composite objects made of quarks was 
experimentally supported in 1969 Today, 
the elementary particles and interaction 
between them are described by the Standard 
Model. 

According to this model, elementary 
particles are classified as leptons i.e., these 
particles interact with electromagnetic and 
gravitational fields but beyond that they 
interact only through weak interactions, 
hadrons and gauge bosons. Leptons and 
hadrons interact by exchanging gauge 
bosons. Each type of the gauge bosons is 
responsible for a different fundamental force. 
Photons mediate the electromagnetic force 
which affects all charged particles; gravitons 
mediate the force of gravity; gluons mediate 
the strong interaction which affects quarks; 
and weakens mediate the weak nuclear force. 
The Standard Model is quite successful in 
explaining the existing available 
experimental data but it has failed to address 
many important questions in subatomic 
physics. For example, still we do not know 
how the masses of quarks, leptons and gauge 
bosons are generated. The Model also failed 
in unifying all the four fundamental forces 
manifested in nature. Recently, a new theory 
known as Superstring Theory has been 
proposed which unifies all the four 
fundamental forces of nature. 



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The invention of paper is closely-linked 
with the history of human civilisation. 
Although the modem printing industry is 
generally considered to have born out of the 
invention of movable types of Johan 
Gutenberg in 1455, the Chinese had been 
printing on paper many hundreds of years 
earlier. Paper was first produced in China in 
about 105 AD, when papyrus and parchment 
were being used in Mediterranean countries. 
Tortoise shell, bone, metals, stones, bamboo 
slips, wooden tables and silk were used, as 
writing materials in China before the 
invention of paper. It took centuries to perfect 
the technology of producing vegetable fibre 
paper. Initially, the raw material used was 
hemp, rope ends, rags and worn out fishing 
nets etc. The oldest sample of paper from 
Wester Han Dynasty was discovered in 1957 
in Shaanxi Province of China. The ancient 
Egyptians used papyrus as writing material, 
which is derived from the plant Cypenus 
papyrus. The papyrus plant was long 
cultivated in the Nile delta region in Egypt and 
was collected for its stalk or stem, whose 
central pith was cut into thin strips, pressed 
together and dried to form a smooth thin 
writing surface. Papyrus is a grass like aquatic 
plant that has woody, blunt triangular stems 
and grows upto 4.6 m high in quietly flowing 
water. The triangular stem can grow to a width 
of 6 cm. The Egyptians used the stem of the 
pyrus plant to make sails, cloth, mat, cords and 
above all, paper. It was adopted by the Greeks 
and .was used extensively in the Roman 
Empire. 

It was used for the production of legal 
documents. Pliny the Elder, gave an account 
of the manufacture of paper from papyrus. 
The fibrous layers within the stem of the 
plant were removed and a number of these 
longitudinal strips were placed side by side 
and then crossed at right angles with another 



set of strips. The two layers formed a sheet, 
which was then dampened and pressed. 
Upon drying the glue like sap of the plant 
acted as an adhesive and cemented the layers 
together. The sheet was finally hammered 
and dried in the sun. A number of these 
sheets were then joined together with paste 
to form a roll, with usually not more than 20 
sheets to a roll. As time passed, other fibrous 
plants started replacing papyrus. 

By the turn of 3rd Century A.D., 
papyrus had already begun to be replaced by 
less expensive velum or parchment in Europe. 
Parchment is said to have been invented in 
the 2nd Century. B.C., the name apparently 
derived from the' ancient Greek city of 
Pergamum. It is the processed skin of certain 
animals mainly sheep, goats and calves that 
have been prepared for the purpose of writing 
on them. Parchment made from the more 
delicate skins of calf or lamb came to be 
vellum, a term that was broadened in its 
usage to included any especially fine 
parchment. In modern usage, the terms 
parchment and vellum may be applied to a 
type of paper of high quality chiefly made 
from wood pulp and rags and frequently 
having a special finish. Nearly all paper is 
made of cellulose (40% to 50%), hemi- 
cellulose (20% to 50%), Lignni (20%) and 
other extractives, which are separated from 
cellulose. Mainly two types of woods are used 
in paper making i.e. Softwood - obtained from 
coniferous tree and Hardwood - obtained 
from deciduous trees. Softwoods offer more 
strength but hardwoods give smooth though 
less strong paper. 



20 



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experiments in medicine. But, unfortunately, 
only a few out of these 400 experiments are 
available to us. One important and interesting 
investigation among the many of Galen is his 



I am. an investigator of truth. I do not 
certify anybody's statement without putting 
into test. After my time, if anybody desires 
and work to pursue and to decipher the 
truth, I have full faith that he would be 
completely satisfied with his investigation. 
These are the utterances of a scientist 
known widely as Galen. Galen tops the 
list among the eminent persons in the 
medical science. His works on Medical 
Science and Anatomy is a milestone and 
masterpiece in the medical literature of the 
world. He was the first experimental 
physiologist His works were based upon the 
studies made on apes and other animals. 
Galen's father was a mathematician and an 
architect and his father's work influenced 
him very much in forming scientific attitude. 
He studied until he was twenty nine years 
of age and later started practicing medicine 
with a great zeal and skill to emerge out as 
an eminent medical scientist. 

Galen studied in a medical school in 
Pergamum. The teachers in the Pergamum 
Medical School were the followers of the 
system prescribed by Hippocrates. Later, 
when Galen studied higher medicine at 
Smyrna and at Corinth, he made extensive 
and exhaustive studies in anatomy and 
physiology. After his final studies in 
Alexandria, Galen founded his own medical 
laboratory where he conducted extensive 
research work on various aspects of the 
medical science with special reference to 
anatomy and physiology. During 169 A.D. 
Emperor Markas Aurelius invited Galen to 
Rome for further scientific research and 
higher studies in medicine. Besides, Rome, 
at that time needed a physician for the 
military personnel. In Rome, he could find 
all facilities of his choice and needs 
pertaining to medical research, studies and 
treatment. 

During this period of his stay in Rome, 
Galen could conduct as many as 400 



unquestionable statement made in 
connection with the blood circulation. He 
also studied the functions of the heart, its 
muscular layers, its valves etc. His sincere 
studies in this area of the human anatomical 
structure enabled him to prove beyond 
doubts is that the veins are the blood 
carriers This fact was not known to 
anybody for quite a long time till the time of 
Galen Galen made a study of the nervous 
system also and realised that all the nerves 
report message to the brain. 

Through the spinal cord and it is the 
nervous system that controlled the 
movement of the diaphragm in breathing. 
The experiments that he conducted on 
muscles are still amazing to the medical 
world. His investigation in this area 
happened to be the first of its kind. 
According to Galen, muscles always act in 
antagonistic pairs or groups to relax or to 
constrict in various parts of the body. He 
also felt that the body movements are 
controlled by the Central Nervous System 
and this condition was called Paraplegia by 
Galen. All the medical studies made by 
Galen were very systematical and they were 
made on the lines of Hippocrates. He 
proclaimed to the world for the first time 
about the human anatomy in a scientific 
manner and he also made the world know 
clearly the major functions of every organ of 
the human system and how best they could 
be taken care of for a healthy existence of 
man. Most of the postulates of medical 
science were known by the Galenic Sy stem- 
in the good maintenance of the human body 
and its organs. 



21 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



Nurses care for the sick and the injured 
and help people to stay well. It is a demanding 
career and involves shift duty. The profession 
requires intelligence, compassion and 
stamina and rewards one with the privilege 
of making a difference to the people's lives. 
Nurses observe, assess and record symptoms, 
reactions and progress of the patients, in the 
process, establishing communication lines 
with them. They assist physicians and 
surgeons during treatment and examination 
besides assisting in rehabilitation and 
convalescence. They work under the direct 
supervision of nursing departments and in 
co-ordination with physicians. Their work 
area may be general, operating room, 
maternity room duty, emergency rooms, 
intensive care units or outpatient clinics. 
Nurses also work in physicians consulting 
rooms, private homes, school infirmaries, 
industries, home nursing services, etc. 

The nursing profession demands being 
cheerful with a desire to help others and the 
mental strength to work with even the 
seriously ill. It requires common sense, 
practical bent of mind, unflappability, 
sympathy for the old, young and the sick 
without sentimentality, an interest in 
medicine without morbid curiosity about 
illness, sensitivity with a certain amount of 
toughness so as not to get too emotionally 
involved and organising ability. Patience, 
sense of humours to put up with inevitable 
short tempers and difficult people, the ability 
to judge when to be firm and how to be firm. 

But not rude, powers of observation, 
ability to take up responsibility one moment 
and to do exactly as instructed the next are 



some characteristics required by a nurse. 
General duty nurses work together with 
other members .of the healthcare team to 
assess the patient's condition and to develop 
and implement a plan for healthcare. The 
range of duties include taking patient's 
temperature, pulse and blood pressure, 
changing dressings, assisting patients with 
personal care, conferring with members of the 
medical staff, helping prepare a patient for 
surgery and completing any number of duties 
that require skill and understanding of 
patient's needs surgical nurses oversee 
preparation of the operating room and the 
sterilising of instruments, assisting surgeons 
during operations and coordinating the flow 
of patient cases. Private duty nurses may work 
in hospitals or in patient's home. Their 
services are designed for individual care of a 
person and are carried out in co-operation 
with patient's physician. 

Midwifery is a unique combination of 
applying complex practical and high-tech 
skills, teaching parentcraft and counselling. 
Midwives traditionally look after mother and 
child from pregnancy to childbirth and a few 
weeks after. They are equipped to provide 
antenatal and post-natal advice, support and 
instruction and take full responsibility during 
birth in straight forward cases and call a 
doctor in case of complications, which they 
are trained to spot at an early stage. Often, 
midwifery is included in the nursing 
curriculum. A blend of formal training in 
theory and practical aspects is the normal 
approach to nursing training. After Class X, 
one can take up the. 18 months Auxiliary 
Nurse Midwife or Multipurpose Health 
Worker Course. It is conducted by various 
hospitals all over the country. Admission is 
normally based on merit in Class X Board 
examination. 



22 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



Once a company becomes aware of the 
possibilities of knowledge systems and 
technology, there is a tendency to rush in 
and implement technology as an end in 
itself But this should be avoided A 
successful strategy must solve a business 
problem, therefore an opportunity oriented 
approach may be preferable to a technology 
oriented approach.. Knowledge manage- 
ment opportunities are usually present in 
various forms such as: decisions, systems, 
people, and core competence. A Company 
should survey itself to discover in which 
areas it can best apply knowledge 
management Making decisions is one of the 
most important functions of any 
management in a company. There are many 
types of decisions. A company should 
inventory all decisions it makes regularly 
especially high volume, recurring ones and 
then consider building a knowledge system 
for each decision in the inventory. Such a 
system either could help make the decision 
or could automate the standard, recurring 
cases. 

A company's mainline information 
systems might have knowledge intensive 
components where application of knowledge 
technology may be feasible. Alternative 
knowledge technologies handle complexity 
and volatility much more readily than 
conventional procedural coding techniques 
and might make such applications feasible. 
Volatile pricing schemes and complex 
accounting processes are two mainline 
system functions where the applications of 
knowledge technologies has been 
implemented successfully. 

Professional knowledge workers 
typically spend 80 percent of their time on 
overhead tasks and mundane decision 
making and 20 percent on exceptions and 
creative problem solving. To make these 
people more effective a company should 
identify all large, homogeneous groups of 



professionals in the organization, inventory 
each group's of business functions, and then 
consider how to combine knowledge 
technology with other computing 
technologies to provide a one stop, 
multifunction, comprehensive performance 
support system for each group. Knowledge 
technology Is not the only technology 
required to build such systems but it might 
well be the component that makes them 
worth building. 

We need to expand our system- 
building efforts beyond expert systems to 
more comprehensive knowledge systems 
that can accommodate knowledge in any 
form; text, video, rules, cases, procedures or 
human expertise. We need to expand our 
Knowledge engineering efforts, beyond 
capturing knowledge from humans to 
capturing knowledge from whatever 
repository contains it reference books, 
working papers, training materials, 
legislation, patents and so on . We need to 
expand our toolkit beyond traditional 
technologies to a more comprehensive set of 
knowledge technologies. Our toolkit must 
accommodate all forms and sources of 
knowledge. Rule processing object oriented 
programming case based reasoning, 
hypermedia, neural nets, group work, and 
even good old procedural coding tools all 
have a role. A performance support system 
should do more than automate business as 
usual. It might be necessary to dismantle 
specialized departments that perform very 
narrow tasks in favour of a case 
management approach that allows one 
person or department to perform all tasks 
related to a case. Such efforts using a 
performance support system have reversed 
the 80/20 percentages in several, companies. 



23 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



Pollution refers to contamination of 
natural ingredients of environment. Air is 
a mixture of different gases which form an 
equilibrium. When this equilibrium of gases 
is disturbed beyond the limits fixed by 
environment itself, air-pollution occurs. If a 
gas increases or decreases to the extent that 
it cannot be reverted to its definite ratio by 
virtue of natural balance, it disturbs the ratio 
of gases present in the air and consequent 
results are seen in the forms of acid-rain, 
green house effect increased respiratory 
problems and related lung and heart 
diseases, ozone-layer depletion, smoky fog 
and damage to plants, property etc. In India, 
the common sources of air-pollution are 
industrial, traffic and domestic emissions 
including thermal power stations, fertiliser 
factories, textile mills and sugar factories, 
etc. 

Water pollution is defined to mean such 
contamination of water and such alteration 
of the physical, chemical and biological 
properties of water or such discharge of any 
sewage or trade effluent or any other liquid, 
gaseous or solid substance into water that is 
likely to create a nuisance by way of physical 
appearance, odour, taste or render such 
water harmful and injurious to public health, 
for the purpose of domestic, commercial, 
industrial, agricultural or other legitimate 
uses or to health of animals or aquatic life. 
Water pollution is cause by dumping of 
domestic wastes like sewage and industrial 
wastes in rivers, lakes or on open places. 

Excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides in 
agricultural practices, the gaseous effluents 
changed into acids on coming in contact with 
humid atmosphere and acid-rains and 
bathing of human-beings and animals, 
cleaning of utensils and throwing of half 



burnt or unbumt corpses into lakes, rivers 
and ponds. Water pollution results in many 
water-borne diseases, which include malaria, 
Japanese encephalitis, dengue, ftlariasis, 
cholera, typhoid, conjucbvitis, amolbiasis, 
diarrhoea, jaundice, dysentery, intestinal 
worms and parasites which may cause polio, 
dental fluoresces, stomach diseases, skin- 
infection, lung diseases, pain in joints, bow 
legs to name a few and killing of plants and 
animals inside and outside the water. 

In India, there is now a wealth of 
documented evidence from all over the 
country of the adverse effects of water 
pollution. Almost all rivers including Ganga, 
Yamuna, Godavari, Narmada and 
Brahmaputra and lakes, many ponds are 
heavily polluted. In some areas, even the 
ground water had been found to have 
pollutants mixed in it. The state of affairs 
heeds immediate attention at local, regional 
and national levels. Increased use of 
chemical fertilisers, flood watering, 
pesticides, insecticides and herbicides and 
excessive use of soils have changed the soil 
ecology and have degraded it so much that 
it has lost its basic elements which maintain 
the soil fertility and natural soil structure 
This phenomenon is known as soil pollution. 
The effect of noise on human beings and 
other organisms depends upon its intensity, 
frequency and duration, Today, noise can be 
expressed in units called decibels. 85 
decibels is considered as the tolerance limit 
of noise. When noise-level crosses this limit, 
noise-pollution takes place. Noise pollution 
is caused by heavy traffic, blaring music over 
loud-speakers, jet-lanes and industries. 



24 



Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:- 



Most people like to wake up to the 
newspaper-the morning cup of coffee or tea 
seems to acquire a certain flavour only if the 
paper is spread out in front of them. 
Newspaper distributors often face the wrath 
of irate customers if the paper boy is late 
even by five minutes. The scene where 
everybody wants apart of the paper as soon 
as it arrives, the child tries to pry sections 
from their father is not an unusual one in 
most homes, What makes people go to their 
doors the first thing each morning in search 
of the coveted newspaper? In a single word 
news everybody wants to get to know it, 
nobody wants to be left out of it and there is 
this definite urge in most people to also be 
the first to hear it. A reporter's job is 
consequently a very important one and the 
person carries on his or her shoulders the 
awesome responsibility of having to be 
authentic about any news item covered. 
Persons working in the print media are 
called journalists, columnists or 
correspondents. Their main function is to 
write factual, informative and interesting 
articles for newspapers, magazines and 
other print markets. Individuals may opt to 
be general reporters or specialise in fields 
such as sports, news, current events, family 
matters, health, politics, law and order, 
education, foreign affairs, fashion, theatre, 
the arts, consumer affairs, business or 
investigative reporting. Once a reporter is 
assigned a story he or she must gather 
information and this is usually accomplished 
through interviewing, investigating leads 
and news tips, talking to people on the scene 
and reviewing pre-existing documents. It is 
essential that individuals make sure their 
information is accurate. 

After all the facts have been gathered, 
the reporter develops an angle and focus to 
the story to write the article. It may have to 
be rewritten a number of times to polish it 



It is then typed and given to the editor for 
review. Most larger newspapers and 
magazines now use computers which makes 
this process much easier for the reporter. All 
fact-gathering interviewing and writing 
must be done in a timely fashion as 
publications work under deadlines. 
Additional responsibilities may include 
taking photographs, writing captions and 
headlines, or editing wire service copy and 
press releases. 

The working conditions for reporters 
can be uncomfortable and tiring. They 
should also be able to work under pressure 
of deadlines. A reporter may have to travel 
to a site in order to report a news-happening 
and sometimes this can even be a little 
threatening if the reporter is involved in a 
tense political situation, riots, war or some 
other similar situation. They must get used 
to working in crowds without losing their 
cool and also be able to work in a conditions 
of weather. Individuals aspiring to be 
reporters have to possess excellent 
communication and writing skills. They 
should be relentless in their pursuit for 
information and should have excellent 
persuastive skills for coaxing information 
from people especially if they are inhibited 
or scared. Reporters should have a built-in 
antenna for scouting newsworthy items and 
once they have been able to elicit 
information, they should be able to express 
themselves clearly and concisely. They 
should be able to work long hours under 
pressure. Reporters should have a knack of 
dealing with people and situations and also 
Be unbiased in their approach to a news item. 



25 



PART - B 

SHORT NOTE ON THE SUBJECT TOPICS 

1. STATISTICAL MATTER 

A Tabular Statement giving particulars of certain things or achievement 
The Particulars generally occupying the first column and the figures 
occupying the other COLUMNS. 

2. BALANCE SHEET 

(I). Assets and Liabilities; 

A Statement showing the Assets and Liabilities of a business concern at 
the end of a financial period duly certified by the Auditors 

(ii). Profit and Loss Account: 

A Statement prepared by a trading concern at the end of each trading 
period to ascertain the profit gained or loss sustained during the 
Trading year, 
(iii). Statement of Income and Expenditure: 

A Statement prepared by non-tradingconcernssuch as Hospitals, 
Clubs, Schools, etc., At the end of each financial year 

3. DISPLAY 

(i) Advertisement 

Generally displayed by business concerns for introducing their 

products or for increasing their sales, to gain publicity in the case 

of film shows and other types of entertainments, to convey 

important information to the public, etc., 

(ii) Invitation 

A format, inviting persons to attend an arranged function such as 
marriage, meeting etc.,. 

26 



(iii) Notice 

Sent by Limited Companies and Registered Associations etc., 

To their members auction notices, legal notices, warrant notices etc., 

Published in newspapers. 

(iv) Programme 

To convey to the invites is the sequences of events, the time and places of 
any arranged function. 



4. OFFICIAL LETTERS / GOVERNMENT ORDERS 

(i) Demi Official Letter 

A letter written by a Government or quasi-Government 
officer to another Officer by name with a request to give 
immediate or personal attention to a matter 

(ii) Government Order 

An order issued by the Government under the powers 
delegated by the Governor. 

(iii) Official Notification. 

An official notification is issued by the Government to the 
concerned Departments, under sections. 

(iv) Official Proceedings. 

Issued by a Government authority making appointments and transfers, 
granting of leave, increments, etc., To subordinates; conferring of benefits 
on a member of the public like the grant of scholarship to a student, 
order of refund of court fees paid by a litigant etc. 



27 



ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS 







LEFT 


RIGHT 


1 . Balance Sheet 


Liabilities 


Assets 


2. Balance Sheet 


Capital and 
Liabilities 


Property and Assets 


3. Income & Expenditure Account 


Expenditure 


Income 


4. Profit and Loss Account 


Loss 


Profit 


S. Receipts and Payments Account 


Receipts 


Payment 


6. Revenue Account 


"To" 


"By" 


A/C : 


Account 


B.P. 


: Bills Payable 


Autlid. 


Authorised 


BR 


: Bills Receivable 


Aridns r 


Additions 


Bat. fr.d 


Balance from 


Accd. 


Accrued 


Br. Govt 


British Government 


Acctt. : 


Accountant 


B/f. 


• Brought forward 


Amt. . . : 


. Amount 


B/d. 


: . Brought down 


Addl. 


Additional 


Bk. orEng. 


: Bank of England 


Annl 


Annual 


Bindg. 


Binding 


Accrdg- 


According 


Bus. 


Business 


Al F.D. 


At Fixed Deposit 


C.A. 


Chief Accountant 


Advl. 


Advertisement 




r Charicieu Accountant 


App A/C 


Appropriation 


Cap. 


: Capita! 




Account 


Curr. 


: Current 


Accdg. 


According 


Conimn. 


Commission 


Addl. 


Additional 


Chartd. 


:■ Chartered 


Adjt. 


Adjustment 


Constn. 


Const taction 


AG. 


Accountant Genera) 


Cum. 


: Cunimulativc 


Alice. 


Allowance 


Of. 


: Carried forward 


Agst. 


. Against 


Od. 


Carried down 


A.O. 


, Accounts Officer 


Cash at C.A. 


Cash al Current 


Appln. 


Application 




. Account 


Assn. 


Association 


CasliatS.B.A/c 


Cash at Savings 


Asst 


; Assistant 


■ 


Bank Account 


Attn. 


Attention 


C.S. 


: ChicfSupcriutcudcni 


Bd. 


Board 




Chief Secretary 


Bk. 


Book. B;mk, Block 


C/o. 


: Carried over 


B/s. 


| Balance Sheet 


C.C. Bk. 


Co-operative 


Bal or Bee. 


: Balance 


. 


Central Bank 


Bldgs. 


Buildings 


Conlgcy.. 


: Contingency 


Dcpn. 


Depreciation 


Ind. Bk. 


Indian Bank 



28 



Dis 


Discount 


Ins 


Insurance 


Dev 


Development 


Insln 


Institution 


Dcdn 


Deduction 


Ind 


India or Indian 


Deb. 


Debenture 


Int Di\ 


Interim Dividend 


Dtv 


Dividend 


Infrn 


Information 


Disbursints 


Disbursements 


litvl 


Investment 


Dec Id 


Declared 


hit 


Interest 


Dep A/c 


Deposit Account 


Ksd 


Issued 


Di 


Debtor or Director 


1 ibv 


Library 


On 


Division of Down 


l.i.i or Liaby 


Liability 


Disconcn 


Disconnection 


My ofMang 


Managing 


Deccn 


Decision 


Misc 


Miscellaneous 


Dcpt 


Department 


Maintcc 


Maintenance 


Dy 


Deputy 


MD 


Managing Director 


Ds 


Dear Sir (s) 


N P 


Net Profit 


Expr 


Expenditure 


N 1, 


Net Loss 


Emits 


Endorsements 


Natl Sav 


National Savings 


Engf 


Engineer 


Noin Cap 


Nominal Capital 


Edl. 


Educational 


Notfn 


Notification 


Eg 


Example 


DD 


Overdraft 


F.std 


Established 


Obtng 


Obtaining 


Ex pin 


Explanation 


Obsvn 


Observation 


Exps 


Expenses 


Orgn 


Organisation 


Lxcdg 


Exceeding 


Objn 


Objection 


Eqty 


Equity 


P& L 


Profit and Loss 


Fd Dep 


Fixed Deposit 


Prtng. 


Pringint 


l : /fly 


Faithfully 


Prcmm 


Premium 


r-oiig. 


Following 


Provdnt. Fd 


Provident Fund 


GP 


Gross Profit 


PF 


Provident Fund 


G L 


Gross Loss 


Provns 


Provisions 


Gl 


General 


Pendg 


Pending 


Govt 


Government 


Picly 


Preliminary 


Govr 


Governor 


Possn 


Possession 


M O 


Head Office 


PO 


Postal Order 


H M 


Head Master 


PTO 


Please Turn Over 


H 


Head Quarters 


Publn 


Publication 


HRA 


House Rent AHowences 


Ptn 


Printing 


Qln 


Qualification 


Suhserbd 


Subscribed 


Qui 


Quotation 


Socy 


Society 



29 



Reqd. 


Required 


Tradg. 


Trading 


Red.X 


Red Cross 


T/w 


Typewriter 


Remn. 


Remuneration 


Tech. 


Technical 


Regn. 


Registration 


Ternpy. 


Temporary 


Rly. 


Railway 


U.C. ' 


Upper case 


Stt. 


Statement 


Unexpd. 


Unexpected 


S.Crs. 


Sundry Creditors 


Underwrtg. Underwriting 


S.Drs. 


Sundry Debtors 


w.e.f. 


with effect from 


Sty. 


Stationary 


w.r.t 


with reference to 


Subscripn. 


Subscription 


W.k. 


Week / Work 


Spl/ spe 


Special 


W.h. 


Which 


Secy. 


Secretary 








PROOF CORRECTION SYMBOLS 


uc 


Upper Case 


Run on 


Proceed without break 


Lc 


Lower Case 
Capital 


*\ 




Cap. 


^ # 


Leave space 


Caps. 


Capitals 


("5 


Joint together 


AH Caps. 


All Capitals 






N.P. 


Next Para New Paras 


/ 


Interest 


P.P. 


Fresh Para 






P.// [ 


Parts 


Rom. fig 


Roman Figure (ii) 





Circle 


In wrds(Words] 


In Figures (2) 


Oces. 


Circumstances 


Letter or word 


In Words (Five) 


Ote. 


Circulate 


Underlined 


Use capital as 


Trs. (Trans) 


Transpose 


Twice Italics 


the case may be. 


\ 


(Change) 






stet 


Let it stand 


Single 


All Capitals with underline 


0i 


Delete 


Quotation 


Foot (5') 




(Omit it) 




apostrophe (Ram's) 


Madurai 


Initial capital 




Omission of a letter (I'll) 




Therefore 


Double 


Inch (5'6") 




Because 


Quotation 


Ditto (") 


/ 


The 







PUNCTURATION FOR FIGURES: 

9,34,53,050.90 — - Ordinary 

93,453,050,90 — - Millions , (Population, Tonnes) 

9,345,30,50.90 — - Hundreds 

9,345,30,50.90 — - Thousands 

9,34,530,50.90 — - Lakhs 

9,34,53,050.90 — - Crores 



30 



PRINTERS' PROOF CORRECTION METHOD 


Method of directing correction 
(Symbols and/or abbreviations) 


Explanation 

/Expansion 


Solution 


Rawr^/S 


^y 


Apostrophe 


Rama's 


xa. 


/jftak- 


Arabic numerals 


12 


Crt/iCa 


Qxp 


Capital Letter 


India 


9m«4i« 


Cftf* 


Capital Letters 


INDIA 


9*icU«wn £te>n*7my 


ftl! Cap* 


All Cap. Letters 


1NDIANECONOMY 


en i*u»A '-**f 


/^feitffc 


Caret Mark 


in the book leaf 


itQpnoSh 


--\ 


Close up 


inmost 


t*W ] 


ei * # 


Delete 


fulfil 


su 


/© 


Fulls top 


St. (Saint) 


As 3 WL 


/g 


Comma 


As I go, 


3 /W 


/© 


Semicolon 


I saw; 


Co/^f^afrw*. 


/- 


Hyphen 


Co-operative 




d,n 


Indent 


Purchase 
LESS Returns 


Vujtnh>ij ^"ve 


In ^fl[<4 - 


In figures 


25- 


£3 


In uxti. 


In words 


twenty three 


moy 4Wfl* '0*H(W 


IfttC 


Italic Letters 


mv Alma Matter 


1« <Atnw.cf^*fc 


# 


Leave Space 


inasmuch as 


071B *fiQa*n 


"— ' 


Less Space 


One man 


tn ^?c~ irmtaf 


SVth 


Let it stand 


in the market 


gcok. 


i.c 


Lower Case 


book 


4*«i- by pal 1/ £t 


P. ^P- 

FP 


Paragraph 
Next Paragraph 
Fresh Paragraph 


The book was 
sent by post. 

It was fine to 
read. 


<-£** tW ^"*\* *te 


/2un £>T) 


No Paragraph 


The book was sent 
by post. It was fine to 
read. 


/A*«U 


^ ^ 


Quotation 


"Navy" 


-fcfc- .? 


Rom. 


Roman numerals 


XXII orxxii 


**>e.ptna,H 


£P- 


Spelling 


separate 


$> 


Tn*. 


Transpose 


2 
5 


isei 


Trti. 


Transpose 


25 


grgok. Tfij ffi 


T*vS- 


Transpose in order 


in the book 


"CneU* 


2t.<:., y-c 


Upper Case 


India 


9 u)«b-*r$oi:o(?«*y 




Search, find & insert 

* Asterisk 

@ Symbol for 'at' 


I wish to go to 
Mumbai City 



31 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Accd. 

Advt, 

Appro. 

Bee. 

Bldgs. 

B.d. or b/d, 

B.D. debts 

B,P. 

B.R. 

B.S. orB/S. 

C.A. 

Co's 

Co. or C/o 

Commn, 

Deb. 

Depn. 

Dev. 

d/d. 

dis. 

Div. 

Divl. 

explns. 

expre. 

F.D. 

Fix. 

Gl. 

Inc. 

Ins. 

Int. 

informn. 

Machy. 

Misc. 

N.L. 

N.P. 

opn. 

obtd. 

ordy. 

Pref. 

Pig. 

Prg. & Sty. 

P. & L. A/c. 

P.F. 

P. & T. charges 

P.&T. Dept. 

reeds, 
reqd. 
Res. 

S.B. A/C. 
Sy. Crs. 
Sy. Drs. 
Issued Cap. 
Subs. Cap. 
Vrs. 
W.r.t. 



Accrued 

Advertisement 

Appropriate 

Balance 

Buildings 

Broughtdown 

Bad and doubtful debts 

Bills Payable 

Bills Receivable 

Balance Sheet 

Current Account 

Chartered Accountant 

Company's 

Carried over 

Commission 

Debenture 

Depreciation 

Development 

doubtful debts 

discount 

Dividend 

Divisional 

explanations 

expenditure 

Fixed Deposit 

Fixtures 

General 

Income 

Insurance 

Interest 

information 

Machinery 

Miscellaneous 

Net Loss 

Net Profit 

opinion 

obtained 

ordinary 

Preference 

Printing 

Printing and Stationery 

Profit and Loss Account 

Provident Fund 

Postage and Telegram 

charges 

Posts and Telegraphs 

Department 

records 

required 

Reserve 

Savings Bank Account 

Sundry Creditors 

Sundry Debtors 

Issued Capital 

Subscribed Capital 

Vouchers 

With reference to 



FREQUENTLY OCCURRING WORDS 

Authorised Capital 

Subscribed Capital 

Share Capital 

Nominal Capital 

Issued Capital 

Called and Paid up Capital 

Issued and Subscribed Capital 

Fixed Assets 

Current Account 

Fixed Deposit Account 

Savings Bank Account 

Ordinary Shares 

preference Shares 

Caution Deposit 

Security Deposit 

Secured Loan 

Unsecured loan 

Appropriation 

Bills payable 

Bills Receivable 

Brought Forward 

Closing stock 

Cash on hand 

Cash at Bank 

Current Liabilities & Provisions 

Depreciation 

Debenture 

Dividends 

Excess of Income over Expenditure 

Freehold land 

Freehold premises 

Fixtures and Fittings 

fluctuations 

Goodwill 

gratuity 

Interest accrued 

Insurance premium 

Insurance prepaid 

Loose tools 

Land and Buildings 

Net Profit 

Net Loss 

Plant and Machinery 

Profit and Loss Account 

Profit and Loss Appropriation Account 

Provident Fund 

Bank overdraft 

Postage and Telegram 

Preliminary expenses 

Reserves and Surpluses 

Reserve for bad and doubtful debts 

remuneration 

Rent, Rate and Taxes 

Stock - in - Trade 

Works - in - Progress 

Sinking Fund 

Subsidies and donations 

Salaries, wages, bonus, etc. 

Sundry Debtors 

Sundry Creditors 

Income over expenditure 

Securities at par 

anticipated expenses 



32 



1 . STATISTICAL STATEMENT (Vertical) 

STATE-WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 

SANCTIONED AND DISBURSED BY THE INDUSTRIAL 

DEVELOPMENT BANK OF INDIA 

// 



MODEL 



6 

C/3 


CD 

■*- 
CO 

*-* 

CO 


1968 


-69 


1969 


-70 


T3 

„ (D 

c c 

3 O 

o ~ 

< to 
CO 


O D 

E -a 


_ a> 

c C 
3 O 
O "i= 

< to 
CO 


O ZJ 

E-Q 
< .£2 

"O 








II 












(Rupees ir 

// 


i crore) 




1. 


Andra Pradesh 


154.40 


159.90 


1 ,773.70 


1 ,637.20 


2. 


Assam* 


... 


... 


12.40 


24.40 


3. 


Bihar 


159.90 


266.60 


965.20 


441 .70 


4. 


Gujarat 


328.80 


301 .80 


3,724.60 


3,148.90 


5. 


Haryana 


58.10 


53.60 


262.10 


249.80 


6. 


Kerala 


133.00 


68.30 


440.00 


342.30 


7. 


Madhya Pradesh 


171.30 


143.70 


543.00 


517.90 


8. 


Maharashtra 


2,217.70 


1,100.10 


9,621.20 


8,812.90 


9. 


Mysore 


489.70 


263.60 


1,052.70 


859.70 


10. 


Orissa 


348.60 


46.20 


504.10 


223.40 


11. 


Tamil Nadu and 












Pondicherry 


118.50 


114.50 


1,111.70 


1,134.90 




Total 


4,180.00 


2,518.30 


20,001.70 


17,393.10 


Particulars in respect of 1968 - 


68 are not a 1 


/ailable. 







33 



5>wdL*£ 



irw Wo. 






^%^*lXk 




«*-*>ife 



3) U- ^4 +*JL t^iUUjl 



IS,* 17 



A gbHS-(.3y7».axVl/*- ?9 



t,i«,iri* 



M 






l«*7^aS 



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3s:7V« 



-r>4 













3L«7l<f 



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5 






VdJ**c ^$ fvpdl ***3£++M 




AvOtv^ Pv«J«»L «,<U-lfc i?,ib-73 tfc7<f--*i *a,H *^) Tw 

K^t^jb^ j.i-ofc *6«Mr if#4r-r^ **,vi.»7 

TH * ^Z^Zt 8*3-7, *7*g* *• *•** l* **A* Uat 

Tn. fg^UI^ M^^y>.) >M^.7» (h>3»»7 S7k*.r* y;.o> T ~- 



34 






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a: 



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s 

ft 






{3w n^-y.juti>') 






5*0, 35-6 
,*»,)73 



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i 



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28 75~© 



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s~ty ^«o 






I srsb o t 



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4fg*MI *7 

1 73 lT87y3 * S-0 7 X 4" U «*,! » jt /* 
7 7 1 1, c fir 4 / 875-a. iyt. f 4-,o4; 4*tf A" 



35 



^^Jc^jL^b 5 oc xd?>^ "vw ^Vyvvie 5^ti^ ^/^y. l9r9-6( 



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fy\AA0*KJ>Jb 



^«y%*JL 






ft a. 



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SQ8> 



29<^ 



£266 



N'o. tfc P^ew^g-VA **■ 



1 J 

"2 */» 




*23, S7U 



l3l8S<f 



lS2o 



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4,666 



337J8 



uai^ 



33S^ 
2,oS,)3| 









4^33^ ) (3 



4333 



2S6o 
3^171 






Of>* 



^vJU^vW**-' No . 14 



°£ Gawimo<JLoti 






T 









s 

11 



1 4 



C.«*wjt«JtJy 



HA. IkAvv aui Sfcfc g l 



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as; oft 



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36 




37 




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<3 



38 



2. BALANCE SHEETS 

TYPICAL FORMS OF AUDITOR'S CERTIFICATE 

I certify as a result of my audit that in my opinion the above accounts are properly drawn up so as 
to exhibit a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the board. 

We have examined the above Balance Sheet with the books maintained at the Registered Office 
of the Corporation and we report that the Balance Sheet is in agreement with the above books. 

We have audited the above Balance Sheet and we certify that it is in accordance with the books and 
vouchers produced and explanations offered. 

We have examined the above Balance Sheet and have obtained all the information and 
explanation and we certify that the said Balance Sheet exhibit a true and correct state of the company's 
affairs as shown by the books of the company 

We have examined the above Balance Sheet with the books, records and vouchers and have 
obtained all the information and explanations required and we hereby certify that the Balance sheet has 
been properly and correctly drawn up. 

We have obtained all the information and explanation which to the best of our knowledge and 
belief were necessary for purposes of our audit. In our opinion and according to the explanations given, 
the Balance Sheet gives a true and fair view of the state of the company's affairs for the year. 

We have audited the accounts of the above company obtaining all the information and explanation 
required. In our opinion, the above Balance Sheet has been drawn up as per the Rules of the Company 
and represents the true and correct state of affairs of the Company. 

We have audited the above Balance Sheet with reference to account books and vouchers 
obtaining all the information and explanation required and certify that the Balance Sheet is correctly 
drawn up. 

We have audited the annexed Balance Sheet with the Books of the Company and certify that it 
represents a correct view of the Company's affairs as at 30th June 1971. 

The Profit and Loss Account was examined by us and found to be in agreement with the books of 
the Company. 

I have examined the Profit and Loss Account of the above bank for the year ended that date as 
above set fourth with the bookofthe Bank and in my opinion the accounts gives atrue and fair view of 
the profit for the year ended 

We have audited the above statement of Income and Expenditure and hereby certify that to the 
best of our information and according to the explanations given to us, the same gives the correct state of 
affairs of the above Institute ason 

We hereby certify that we have examined the above Balance Sheet and have found the same is 
correct according to books and vouchers of the above company. 

We have obtained all information and explanations which to the best of our knowledge and belief 
will necessary forthepurpose ofouraudit. Inouropinion theabove gives a true and fair view of the laws. 



39 



2. (i) Assets and Liabilities: 



MODEL 



=3 



o 

CO 



< c 

Q. O 





ol 




<=> 






co 






CO 




CO 




CO 




C3 


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ea 




co 




o 


<=> 
















co 






o 






o 




to 




IO 




CO 


CO 
















co 






o 






o 




co 




r— 




CD 


CO 
















o 






lO 






CO 




era 




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CO 






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o 


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co 




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ddin 
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will 

and Buil 

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in hand 
at Bank 
















|— 






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ash 
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in 


CAPITAL 
11 
hares 
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It 
hares 
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ND SURPL 

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ss Account 

tors 




UHORISED I 

reference S 
rdinary Sha 

(SUED CAP 

reference S 
rdinary Sha 

ESERVES A 

eneral Rese 
rofit and Lo! 

undry Credi 














< 




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40 



Type the following Assets and Liabilities in two separate sheets and ruled up: 



& 






&#> 



ft.p«Ji 



^ Coil Ulr toMkf cm W^J 

I 

1>U 




^7, O06 flO • 



3,Wi 8 So oo 



41 



**r> 



1[C-K'<M * ti*Ukt^j 



•l^ooo ^koujJ, r^ (is, . 1©/- e&cL ^Ao, 000 oo 



(^ 






\H> 






\ «8 000 00 
( J/ 000 °o 



£90 00 



!,5"°,9ro 00 



V 



/\*4 a \ 




T 



/^fr/* 



go 00 



X 



^ W °£ ft*. 



u Coll 



1 ■ & * HfcG- 






42 



Type the following Assests and Labilities in two separate sheets and ruled up: 

Qp& • - 6*\ fg^Kula WAkma Tex.h'\e M.J) A it*. , Comfi^JCflB 

B*w™ SW [5t/^ 3 '^ /1Vl * mtl 



\^ 



-k 
a: 



OC 



Cof& 






dcxpihxi And Lia.ti\Xkmf> 



It AH cy?* 




SHA&£ CAPITAL 

J-W>9j[ torn Uar& (j£&t*f# SeCJMid) 
C uJVWO i Ua.LiL'H&J> 

ffyzd Dtpc&TU {p. PubL'c 



Q. 3.000 
- G, boo 



as, w 



ToW 



1/75,975- 



PRoPERTy Amd Assets 



Piked Assets 

J.ESS o£e£«^'ah"an 
3n>, accrued 



S850D 



5.789H- 



*s. 



S2, 6 5-0 






Vie^JS" 



T*4 



7, 37/ Sk 



i,SLJ> 


v 


3 


20,b1C 


s 




2£,07O 


3i,830 


4 



4WO>TW?5« CERTIFICATE ^iST 

We k. m^-odl flu aW B/S W *** ofefaiwJ- Cn^imh-Dn 
^ ^faifruulh&jj/ a-nd ga:p)&T>».h'WkSl. ^ Q ^4AiU| flwHU fo. / Aaxd (Zed. 
Shm.)' exKiWh^i a. [pi^u jnm. a-rwl uie"-> % / £&«q Mili& a^puLu^ aJ> 
(M^} --Shown L Owipamjf vj* en l\Sh rAan.WSk. B ... c >~£ 

li>m tap. K84. /lu^fenA. 



43 



Type the following Assests and Labilities in two separate sheets and ruled up: 



A|, llOhe ftUujflm fl»-oj7«AAiiW flUf ^Uai^ Ltd, 

■ MM — I fc l "X ' 



ItCAfUuU 4. LicJI-JUtXM 






a, ill U* 



Sfe,«^T i« 



C, 



Tofca 



J?c. P. 



R. ■* 



£>7,-7oS «A~ 






/? 



f? J . J^" 12,-7^ 4-0 



12,^,638 "to 



/M | 



pj^ofixsjz Cl. Asse-la 



„ at ffi«.fc*. &-*p- £«**-&■ 



R*. fi 




7,5o,oe0 00 



* 



IB, 837 60 
/, 7 7, 7.33 9 J 



ft*. P. 
i,e>\, 1^3 4\^ 



-^JC Z 









. **l4#- 3t>fe (fu*?e W>(f. J c**Cjy jt. feu, ^ti. 



1 loiGto-ttx- 



/?,. J acob 



Gtp. 



AA 



Type the following Assests and Labilities in two separate sheets and ruled up: 



u3o/*j 



£■£; £amnja6AR House Builmhc Soc&Ty^ 

MAMlfli — 



ASSETS 



<TV», Loam [6y meropefti/ Duel 



W-t. 




R i( P. 



l,r3,2o3 It 



ftfi. p. 



i* 






bu 



<S,3s£ 62 /A 



4, 33, 35 fi So 



tiAftiunes 



UaIu*. art ,4'itg. _ 







Ri. R 









teu 









£^». 



3 1, V<H 7o 




I El 4S 
suqea 



3,139 fla ) 



— ■ ■ a . ^ r z | 

.- ... . ? k.VAQ.«X>HA^ 

lob, DK.I976, AutLttlyt. 



l.t»H 



6 



45 



Type the following Assests and Labilities in two separate sheets and ruled up: 



flaUMU. gj^f ^ ^ ttstw^ 



«#. 



*n 



Lixlt'tf &*4 /( 



c# 



*' ^ M sis. 



£v 



^ 



XflO; 000 



50,000 



8>ll% HfclU 






34, 1°/ S°° 



33>^ 00 



13,^00 



A, 38,55-2. 






fcj 



46 



' * »■■ — ... - . - ~ 



^*fJ 



(is 



1,00,00 






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^/37, fife? 



1 



3<0^, ^3^ 




AuoCL-l-OTfJ^ 



£<*gti 



V. 



r* 













47 



2. (ii) Statement of Income and Expenditure 



MODEL 





CO 




o 




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TO 


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Books 
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48 



Type the following Statement of Income & Expenditure in two separate sheets and ruled 
up:- 



TH£ JWDlAW ClifimB£R of Commence t a/£w dflhi 



31 sV 



® 






\% 



7 T 



<r — -(Bormt, 



G^> 









SI 7 50 



*. P. 







°l, l^ls CD 



^^ " 6 ttw foauptA 




6u4vi>cAiphc*i h) I. 

^ /5m 

nODlTbtl CERTtFfCATe) ^ 






A/ADU D* I fU , V I S BW* W ATH 4 WD 6oPI rtMTH, 



49 



Type the following Statement of Income & Expenditure in two separate sheets and ruled 
up:- 

iHE y w u* 6HAR*<nf 5p.ST5 LEA C*u 6 y f)*™ fl 



^ (/£/Xj»evidLfcu*. 



RJ. ?■ fc. P- 



v*' " 



v#* 



43,^ 



00 "W* 






IthL •?,*>;# 



O tfO 



50 



\NCGP \£ 



1 I 




*9«>0 <3C 



^e*ti| ^i^t'^O oo 



3 1st" AZ^r,^ ;9^j CU. /jccoiwvfoMtj 



•;s 



51 



Type the following Statement of Income & Expenditure in two separate sheets and ruled 
up:- 










%. 



P- 



oV 



•c- 



v\ 



i 



I I 






' 1 oIa.1- 



taj 



A 



1 ,80,328 15 
7/,4&3 47 



(®^; 



3 oo coo 6o 



oj /5~o, OOO 



00 



^*/t 34£ "/ s 



Hif/'fljtfOj ©7 



52 



lAftene 



*fr 8^ S gJ£J 



bl 












*i- 



^,14, 377 35 






j(,j5fca_3 ?); 



M 







2, 5k } \*>% &« 
18, ffo,qi7 63 



\ \7 t S~\j ^°3 °7 



C~f K 



AuJU±*rj Cu&fcuL 









«"yi <3t— .\_c*_ 









•wt 



53 



Type the following Statement of Income & Expenditure in two separate sheets and ruled 
up:- 



Stir. SL 3*c. U £<f.ve. -^ / ^e*A «vJwl 3l*t f<l*A~ H9I 



PAKty. 



°r- ^ 



J) ExpgnditVuYg 



To 3^to\a4i? 

Lgjj Ami:. bu**v*l«AAJ4<l £x> 



ft*. 






u ^Ca^M e <* gtwot^- V Mais fio^itj 



f£l$, 6IS 



fti. 



30,04,(6^0)0 

t 64, 64 9 



1,<?£/7S« 



2,3?,^ S3 



£4, 



»,3.^ Olg 



£>UL 



9,4.1,598 

S£,43S 

12. 43, 292 



9& 6**-, I © I 



U.c. 



lN<^5M£ 



mi, » 






rnwi 



L 






le^JL 



R*. 



44,133 
1,08,0'M 



«4,£», 133 A 
1,67, l{§£) U* 

"ii, 4~ojJ [7 



1, 5^ # 292. 



46 64,101 






I.e. 






1%. 3^T x Jy i'Wl'j 



54 



Type the following Statement of Income & Expenditure in two separate sheets and ruled 
up:- 

Mr r.Dn« TROPE f COUNCIL. , 1 9Re fDoTl^ MADRAS 
%ton# *~A g>cg*^£g ft/fc. W H***- ****** 5 ** U t ^ Mh i9> * '* 

£ M.P£NDlTuRa , 

_ *~ Us. P. 




Amu*/ rq*JiL*\fr~ 



-= — — — — ■■ v* — 



R«. P. 
S,863 ®o 



7,S«o jjp> 



a 



5S,72 3 ao) 



7,34# 80 /8 
2,fi88 do 
1 6,-Boo go ^ 



^Pao^v* *n "?*-£ 



*. Jkcass eg 3nc. ova*. ^jcpCM^jtuye 



T*b*.t. 



— * *■ 

3.,a7© op 
3?3 5 so £6 



j6,aa& a> > 



53,SeS *o 



l6,OtS Ob 
t a, 6-4-3 ot* 



3. 32. 6 So Op 



/ MHOM & 



1 ., fiorascft.i'PrioM 

•• iamirtaA- P*«- Retook 

'. ^yk-. on A^WActA. 

LESS G*cp«*^4C* 



&5.33S oO 

I /7I*» 60 



fo,6ol O gJ 



f?pli*X 



2., ©8S 00 



23IO OP 



64,052 00 
64,478 OO 

35,4^ 00 

4,3oie« 



6^07 00 



3 32., 5 £0 00 



Audited *' figp*^ 
C fc**V ■>* oww opmnv ^ eviU^iU A fcu* «~<A J*ty Oti» 

7, ^. t9"74-. ^ l 



he 



55 



Type the following Statement of Income & Expenditure in two separate sheets and ruled 
up:- 

Th6 GAttuTTA tAnoiu San<2a/y), CaucuTTa 
"P*- ■ . // E>opeoa >r fcure 



3o 



ECOCAtloWAL Acnv!TJ£3 






nj ^^u*v4e4 



Qtfi 



fniV PA^t^..^ 
TeiepV.er>£. fiCti 



t MCOMG. 



0v 



«( 






^UnU cJ(as*2.i 

fUe. A\k to^va f 
«t«r*is, A**./ Coim t>e Kfctoo* 

Souvenwv SaJUl* 



3/*4^ f3 I? 




9 f ^oo 


63 


35o 


&£ 


4,443 


H L 3 


$.7*4 


*a 


',6 46 


6a. 


#°« 


5K 5 


3„6t>© 


6o 



Rs. 
3,ssi as; 

lots Oo 
■4,44- B oo 
6,2 6 4 O P 



R«. P. 

* * 



a,«fl6 7« 



JAoj> 



66 

Oo 



aa«J 3a 






Z,GSO- So 



M-,034- oo 



44, 3oo 7a. 






56 



2. (Mi) Profit and Loss Account: 



MODEL 









Q. 




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^ c = s 

— 1 -R ■*; *- CO 














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t Jr; h O -"- TO == 


















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3 32 5 co x to 


o JJ 










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CO : = 




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co" 


CN 

5 

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m' 
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8 

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o 

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~ TO TO 








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a. 
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T1 o o> i; to 
E s to 6 ? « 5 








7 E 
















S lu -c © -. ^1 o £ d);: ® 

| o>Ew-g ? o fi " 8 IS S c 
73 w = w c ^ -o T3 - w ra 1— r; — 








CD 

i 

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1 


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S. to to a - w H55£u£q2 
o w 

1 1— | c | t | c | i | i , |^| | . ] e | t | r | * | t | 








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57 



Type the following Profit & Loss Account in two separate sheets and ruled up:- 



Hwi^'t / C G Vf or «.£"«* L i im .' (p i } Mdty / Jt >^>«i 

3i SI MauIa |<ft| 



£, YioUtf 



Stf 



//(J5J 



e/ t. £>um v*W^U o/5«aa£i»j £^<*vm 



Nt\ fWifr 



A 



\M 



ty73,?©;?43 
l,7i,«, 7,S 



3<3, 43,^,9** 



58 



►> 


//jJlr^if 






f 




M- 


OS- 











1 * 


l pWA ~ 3 




?x, I8,( |S1 ' 


&/ ■■ 




Tj§\§7 


t, 






333 


7 4°^ 








t , 



c* 



Vs/* Uov*- cujlO^W >ttijL aV* p- £ L- Account 



OLM 



r 5 



^ 4^S^»w <* */0 






"TT 



A 






59 



Type the following Profit & Loss Account in two separate sheets and ruled up:- 

PhpfiY <*t>^ UAA A\c. fy>\. / yj?aru a/*>ci*c( 30te JW l*?S7 

i , Qo,\zg o£) 



W- t 5«la*ixti and o-^ouuojncii 

" ^' !* • *«A puunh'na 

#L fin £ui"l<li'rtii 

" nxnnthxtaft 



1 




t S CO 



2£j (^Tfc OO 
2ooo oo 



%,oso oo 

li, 'it so «£ 



I, 12, SIX Ot> 



PROFIT 



L)c " J^V. hltaJLWdJcrry L&t^jjuHi&j Geo I- \ 



fci.P. 



Rs. P. 



Isoot'.- 




Stfp oo 2. coo oo 

3,68s 7o 



y,\%%%l oo 



< 



On DtLpc6;t<t> 

Wg ^- * »«»n»'iu^ / aJ^e p/ £ >/ c . ariol ^e WU, a»% 
*""" r~-~~^-~~s *"*' t1 °i^" m o.h , enr> awl actons r\a }e flw fljrp)«<*» h'ervi 4"fen, 

a ^a*ni at a> 3f>ffS T«*« /<?S7. 



J)nd*'h>iA 



60 



Type the following Profit & Loss Account in two separate sheets and ruled up:- 



/VlL 



COO 



Pa*;* £ Low ft/t. |tft/ ^ e*.^ flit Btj-y. i«tf 



4 






L-tf^L. 



Sfoct 



Ctfl4. 



„ Mult. ft~tf MrjiCfcfcj 



80,00© 00 

Sto, 00O 00 



Jo, OOO Off 

20, oso 00 



,|t, ,. TV^JgitU*^ *Z^ ConVe^a^ce. 






R*. P. 



|,3o, 00O 00 
?jr,oeo off 



fifo, 000 tfo ^ 

a,soo ^© 2 s 

g-,000 a 

3,oVg yo") I? 



Stj , £b o o 



%#a,ssi 00 



cV- 



P/u>}U 



Of*- 



,. CLoiiWc £Tock. 



9 6,0 00 a<? 
t*t,oco 00 



To4-»i 



^0,7oP OP 



4,3©, fcee eo 



4 ),3^ooo e>o 
2, <Jo, i-~ou Off 



6£,o©© 60 



^,6i,SSf 00 



AitOf f 



we k*ve *««.1ort / «*. P- i L. A£. 9n o^ 

M/ ohj feu. fl^- 






61 



Type the following Profit & Loss Account in two separate sheets and ruled up:- 






/1L 

3 



fi^ ^*»<* PjVoJj.'G 



6^4- 



X — 



e^iiU 



6«. I>«-f 



^t «.U^fc 



R* 



<=|,4 3, ae>6 
Xa&o, 33*»_ 



' * ■ 

go ,33, S4 a 
39, £&"s3 



Ut- 



0*.. 



4aftk. 



Totit 



Jo 



L^4 






PvA*.&iad 



V 










"7©Ul 



alt 
C*f * 




J^h ^? f»r-» ' g£»-bfl ; ca k 



6,1^833 

1 .'?JiH~( l ' Cg;71 ' 7 















62 



3. DISPLAY 
3. (i) ADVERTISEMENT MODEL 



ADVERTISEMENT 

/// 

Telephone: 2244882 Estd. 1952 Telegrames: 'DIKSHAYA' 

//// 

DIKSHAYA TEXTILES 

Officers' Line, VELLORE 

/// 

Solicit yourkind visit to their new 

// 

ALELS EMPORIUM 

/// 

SPECIAL ATTRACTION FOR GOVERNMENT SERVANTS: 

Easy Installment : : No Initial payment 

//// 

Open on all SUNDAYS 

// 

Weekly Holiday : Tuesday 

//// 

OTHER ATTRACTIONS 

/// 

Separate Ladies' and Children's Counters 

/// 
READY-MADE GARMENTS - SPECIALITY 

/// 

Ever at your service: 

// 

K. ANANDAN 

Proprietor. 

/// 



63 



ri | Mo/^'VxcJxu'*-*^ ^ Canned 








t 

a 

5 



iS 



Cct^ ^<a . 






S^A Sordid ^ P«*"* 




OcfloT' 



%otV, cLJUf j>"i 1% dLignti^) /t 







2t*L 



64 




65 



( (inb>A£>i> r v "^^ Anirmniari St^JJ\~]adb\aA 600001. 
jfi W< u/n<&.t ta^di* (,11 t* H«n & e?wcH«T^ £>7 olf ^ 

IT/ 0»> OuA. loon* .Shop 

8AS n^wuotki^uru Hi|6 Read,© 

(£ ivc*K<5hop ih S«-U - 
^NWOia^ 600 19 



1 l, Look 

z ' 

$(m. *<^k SvnatLl SaUtw -- -Saw « loh 

So** a (of -- **cp / u*H^^^H R 

pi. (f^mha^ : 
335 Anna &^ t 



66 



3. (ii) Invitation 



MODEL 



/// 

MRS. BRINDA MARIYADOSS 

& 

MR. MARIYADOSS 

(Retd. Asst Director, Survey Department, Chennai) 

/// 

Request the pleasure of your company 

on the occasion of the marriage of 

their second daughter 

/// 

Selvi. M. VICTORIA.M.Sc, M.Ed. M.Phil 

with 

Selvan.B.SIVAKUMAR, M.Sc, Ph.D., 

(Research Dyes & Chemicals Officer, Kwait) 

III 

on Friday the June 17,2005 

between 07.30 am to 09.00 am 

at 

Lalitha Mahal Ami, 

Thiruvannamalai District 

Marriage : 07.30 am to 09.00 am 
Reception: 07.30 pm on 16.06.2005 
Dinner : 08.00 pm on 16.06.2005 



67 



Type, fti. ^cl\ot-iw^ j_"t\J ViTAT\o<° w, <w <VrWVtc4 

roc- Pj" )3ff: S 



3 



_g ^ Wvs ia-e^ Py*ovcU»V**>I ^ Goof 

i / x t o- -^ukk^u.-^ _ Ac -it ^^ 

^ TV Wv VM'v?CiX^w>v^><^^ Tovw^s, &.14 • ^ 
PU". ". APofiToUtt f^leu>ACfX 



68 



(t^Aa/v»q6V ( Qri "Ju^om Mo ton ^ 
Selves M- Rf^£ « 






69 




fi/a 




1 


a 


ai 




f 




c? 




2 




^ 




3 

ca 




w 


5^ 


jj 


V g 


L<U 


c: « r^ 


* 1 





70 





71 



3. (iii) Notice 



MODEL 



NOTICE 

III 



SUBHASHNI TEXTILES PRIVATE LIMITED 

Registered Office: 



/// 
// 



4, SBI Main Road, 
Chittoor-A.P. 



/// 
NOTICE 

// 

Notice is hereby given that the 20 th Annual General Meeting of 
the Company will be held at its. Registered thereon Office at 3.00 
pm. on Monday the 28 th February 2010 to transact the following 
business:- 



1 . To adopt the audited statement of Accounts for the 
year ended 31 st December , 2009 And the Directors 
thereon. 

2. To elect two Directors 

3. To appoint an Auditor and fix his remuneration 



III 

(By order of the Board) 

/// 

S.J. Pradeepkumar, 
Secretary. 



Chittoor, 

5 th February 2010 



72 



Tft - are. inV^A VveoM thai" tW 13 ^ 

fWual G^fenoJ. r*«fcA ^ IW" U' c 

I4 ^ ^ Setter W b C**^ Kb**** 
»■ To «i*b fl5^^!^ ; 



J J 






73 



t 



1 



T 



4 

i 



-a 

§ 

4 






Ot 


oA 




i 


r 


M 


til 


1 




74 



3. (iv) Programme: MODEL 





PROGRAMME 




/// 




SILVER JUBILEE OF THE 




MAJESTIC INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 




KATPADI 




/// 




Friday 6th August 1976 

/// 




PROGRAMME 




/// 


10:00 a.m. - 


Group Photo 


10:30 a.m. - 


Inauguration by the Governor of Tamil Nadu 


11:45 a.m. - 


Address by Thiru. T.Robert Rajasekaran, Headmaster, 
Voorhees Hr.Sec.SchooI, Vellore. 


1 :30 p.m 


Lunch at Darling Residency 


2:30 p.m. 


Felicitations 


4:00 p.m. 


Tea at Majestic Premises 


5:00 p.m. 


Closing Ceremony and Vote of thanks. 


Katpadi 
01.08.1976. 


S. PADMANABAN, 
Chairman, 




Reception Committee 



75 



GiDLS>£w TTo8ll.EE d1 THE 



nax 



Programme // Capi 



m 



3- 



Premier 
W e^to*v\^ Old Ar^ii 

RrwtCcUAt 



■-■» 



3>Y • V I^OumGUi 



3>- S R 



Qjmo, 



a>^4 



3>r • k. V^&a-ke^an 



6; 2» augural fVAc&jV HtOiu . Sc^darom 
£ • Nfob<? A partes Q> • IM tviairouya^a^ 



V8 Hi $et - cJoo^ 






76 



i 

t 



£ 

■r 



4) 
Or 
6 



<4- 

4 3 

t s 






JsT 



Jlitt 



iiifgiaia. 



■% ? 






df 



i 






V 




£ Si 





77 



4. OFFICIAL LETTERS /GOVERNMENT ORDERS 
a) Demi Official Letter: 



MODEL 



GOVERNMENT OF TAMILNADU 

// 

OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF HEALTH SERVICES 

// 
Dr. K.MADHAVAN, M.B.,B.S., D.O., Anna Sabi, 

Director of Health Services, Chennai 600006. 

D.O. No. 56/m76 dated the 14 th May 1 976. 

Dear Thiru. Dhanasekaran, 

Sub: Rajya Sabha Starred Qn. No. 786 - Health of School - 
Going children - Particulars - Regarding. 

Ref : your D.O. No.2002 - H/71 -1 , Health, dated the 23rd May 1975, 



I furnish hereunder the particulars called for in your D.O. letter cited. 

Government, in their G.O.Ms. No. 707, Health, dated the 26.3. '65 , 
have sanctioned scheme for School Medical Inspection in this State for the 
care of school going children in the Primary schools covered by 12 
selected Primary Health centers in this State. The Medical Officers 
attached to these Primary Health Centers are carrying out the Medical 
inspection of Health visitors appointed separately of this work in the 
Primary Health Centers among the age group of 6 -11 years attending the 
schools and rendering necessary treatment and follow up of all defective 
children. There is a proposal with Government for extending the scheme to 
urban areas. 

// 

Yours sincerely, 

//// 

(K.MADHAVAN) 

To 

Thiru. R. Dhanasekaran, 

Deputy Secretary to Government, 

Health and Family Planning department, 

Fort St. George, 

Chennai-600 009. 

78 



irn 



u- 



Alb iT A/Wa ' of vc/U 

8 k £«U A»*ft rv\<« i*#? <*«<l ju«uL \isr i,*xy. n^^ m o4 

4^ P W <£? m** (W*W Wd 6^, ^A ^ ^~ 

<^j * ovuU o4 4Jo «v,o^ cWfl rrwj iw h *^r;^ 

^ r .1 ■ 4» ,^,° o4 -feu* VtiviJ^ 

t^il*T kv^ ree&ak, 
Caimasw _ £00 00 9 



79 



Jyf& tU D.O. Utfa, U* f^efi* farm*: 

D.0. UM+K/W/M-10 UU tt.01.10 






%%■%%■%: 






& 



J* 

^ d Ml dmm ^ Mm idkdn *t*y U «4 fpm* %&. Btdtofto. II \ tftd Mi +ecp. A&oh 

*Myl&*JJLfUl4tfa^M^<m^ 
1<t & PMltHffl 

PwlLc f*^**. btft., fS.Q., 

CUh**i - 600001. 

80 



Type lUt &» mt y D^-CU<,J 4k, ,npy T ,L 

Rot : Tkv) 5«|4. frr. wo.tx;»*-S.«UW / 
II* OcV. \<\*£ . 3jL 

^ ^l ^c^jut ins . ok, tw u^ «^a u 7 

,*fr*0*4 -H Yap.**- f^^MJL^^I oAtxhM "«*"*• 



81 



X-«vxatpam, T.a.s., ^, „ „ 

• > ^' Co. <> No. IB 7, ^.(CcAU.-at), d*^/ 

Ui *J> QjZ2£l5& C«4;*aU, ^ / p »LUl. .AA^Ofdt Commit. 
-*'»« ****** "W V oftl« c^Wo -yjfcj ^^ 

<^m»mtC8/oo Offa, <*&***. y4A*.e. p*t>uL£t s ftu, j^ .^j* a 
<&£<: &&1 f. U«* K*k ^ ^ <«■"• ^<=A«iW iv 



^ 



82 



*r<( 



CK). ***«*,**, T.A.«„ fly* 5u ^ 

D.ft UttOv hoJ3l2( W [7S->S D^/lt^ t«fU<?7«,. 

Dfltfww 'TkiYu.. R*«rM*>, 

ft^ iiJt: foHftU-C^Kfitttw.bioo flj fend £» /&fcw^ 

fj (k*et - (PoxticulAVf - £a.U*jI ^A. 
fl«^: Co. *)«. Mo ,72 2 Q«l. U)(Ai<.S y JaUA/ 

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84 



4. (ii) GOVERNMENT ORDER 



MODEL 



GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU 

// 

Abstract 

// 

Indian Medicine - Code of Medical Ethics - Addition to warning notice- Approved. 

// 
Health and Family Planning Department 



// 



G.O.Ms.No.1190 



Dated the 23rd May 1975 

// 



Read the following: 
G.O.Ms.No.5662, Health, Dated the 29th September 1974. 



// 

ORDER: 

// 

The Government direct that the following additions be made to Part III 
warning notice of the code of Medical Ethics approved in G.O. Read above. 
// 

(i) There is no objection to advertisements of the firm o f manufacture or of 
their reputed medicinal preparations. 
// 

(ii) The photographs of the firms may be advertised bay not the 
photographs of patients or clients or the Registered Medical practitioners. 

// 



(By order of the Governor) 

// 



S. Anantha padmanaban 
Secretary to Government 

// 



To 

The Director of Indian Medicine, Madras 600 006. 

// 

Copy to 

All Collectors 

// 

Forwarded/By order 
//// 



Section Officer 



85 



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92 



4. (iii) Official Notification: 



MODEL 



GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU 

// 

Agriculture Department 

// 

NOTIFICATION 

// 

(Notification Issued under Section 5 (4) of the Tamil Nadu Agricultural Produce 
Markets Act relating to declaration ofnotified marked area for Vellore market of 
paddy and gingerly) 

// 
(G.O. Ms.No.54321 , Agriculture, dated the 14th December 1975) 

In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (4) of Section 5 of the 
Tamil Nadu Act 25 of 1 959) the Governor of Tamil Nadu hereby declares the area of 
Vellore market specified in colum (1) of the Schedule below and the area of six 
teen kilometers around the Vellore market comprised in the revenue Villages 
specified in the corresponding entires in column, (2) thereof, to be a notified market 
area of the Vellore market for the purpose of the said Act in respect of paddy and 
ginerlly. 

// 





THE SCHEDULE 
// 
Area of Sixteen kilometers around 


Area of the Vellore Market 




the market. 


(1) 


(2) 


// 


// 


Balaji Rice Mills, 


1 . Ariyur 


Kaveripakkam Village, 


2. Sripuram 


Vellore District. 


3. Allapuram 




4. Sainathapuram 




5. Oottari 




6. Vellappadi 




7. Anaicut 




8. Thottapalayam 




9. Viruthambut 




10. Kalinjur 



93 






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4. (iv) Official Proceedings: MODEL 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE COLLECTOR, SALEM 

SALEM. 

// 

PRESENT : THIRU. D. AVINASH, I.A.S., 

Collector. 

// 

S.Dis.235/77 Dated the 1 4th February 1 977 

// 

Sub : Committees - Committee on government Assurances of Legislative 
Assembly - Meeting held at Salem from 6th to 8th August 1 976 - 
Transport charges - Expenditure sanctioned. 

Ref : (i) G.O.Ms.No.49, Legislative assembly, dated the 3rd August 1 976. 

(ii) Letter No.B4/843/76, dated the 1 1 th September 1 976, From the 
Tahsildar, Attur. 

// 

In pursuance of the orders in G.O.Ms.No.49, legislative Assembly, dated the 3rd 
August 1 976, sanction is accorded for incurring an expenditure not exceeding Rs.1 500/- 
(Rupees one thousand and five hundred only), being the charges for fuel supplied by 
Messrs. Indo American Products Caltex distribution company. Attur, to jeep No. 9956 
and TN 23 allotted to connection with the meeting of Committee on Government 
Assurance of the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly held at Salem from 6th to 8th August 
1976. 

// 

2. The Tahsildar, Attur is authorized to settle the bills, duly certifying that the 
said sum has not been settled previously. 

//// 
Collector.. 

// 

To 

The Thasildar, Attur 636 108. 

// 

Copy to 

The Sub-Treasury Officer, Attur 636 1 08. 

The Secretary to Government, Legislative Assembly 

Department, Madras 600 009. 



98 



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102 



PART - C 



1. TYPEWRITING - PRACTICAL -I 



MECHANISM 



1. TYPEWRITER AND ITS PARTS 

6 7 8 




t- . - -~ .. 



w w whs tri w *s r 

i -**#* , i T^ I "*- Iff - U -- A — J --■- ■ ^. 



18 




19 20 21 



01 

02 

03 

04 

05 

06 

07 

08 

09 

10 

11. 

12. 



Handle/Line Space Lever 

Plunger Knob 

Thumb Wheel 

Cylinder Release Lever 

Line Space Lever 

Carriage Release Lever Right 

Left Hand Margin 

Margin Scale 

Type bar guide 

Ribbon Carrier 

Segment 

Paper bail Roller 



13. Right hand Margin 

14. Cylinder (Platen Roller) 

1 5. Carriage Release Roller Left 

1 6. End of the Paper Indicator 

1 7. Cowl Cover 

18. Carriage 

1 9. Margin Release Key 

20. Shift Lock 

21. Shift Key 

22. Tabulator Bar 

23. Space Bar 

24. Ribbon Colour Indicator 



103 




2. HISTORYOFTHETYPEWRITER: 

The first typewriter was invented by Mr. HERRY MILL and was later 
developed by Sholes, Glidden, Soule and Yost. The first practical 
typewriter was however, introduced in 1873 and it was brought to India 
only in 1876. 

Letters are type-written on the paper; hence this machine is called as 
typewriter. The typewriter is most commonly used and best of office 
machine. Typewriter is a device for writing with neater letters, for doing 
quicker and better work, for taking more copies and for reading the typed 
matter easily. 
There are noiseless, electric and ele^ 

KINDS OF TYPEWRITERS 

There are two kinds of Typewrite 

1. Standard Typewriter 

2. Portable Typewriter 

Standard Typewriters are most commonly used for office Purpose. 
Portable Typewriters are used for camp purpose and it can be easily 
taken during travel. 

ADVANTAGES OF TYPEWRITER 

1. Neatness and accuracy. 

2. Less strain. 

3. Greater speed [less time or time is saved]. 

4. Economy in stationary. 

5. More number of copies can betaken. 

IDENTIFICATION OF TYPEWRITER 

A Type writer can be identified by its make and serial number. 
Question: 
1. Who invented the typewriter? And when? 
2. How many kinds of typewriter are there? 

3. What is the advantages of typewriter? 

4. How can a typewriter be identified? 

5. What is the use of standard model and portable model? 

We can divide the typewriter in 3 main parts; 

104 



3. Key Board 
E GD I TABULATOR BAR ] fM] f^\ 

EEEEEEEEBOQOE 

j SPACE BAR ~| 

The front portion of the machine where all keys are placed 
is called the 'key board'. 

There are two kinds of key board :(1 ) Universal standard Key Board and 

(2) Ideal Key Board. 

All the modern typewriters have only the Universal Standard 
Key Board. Ideal Key Board is not in use now. 

The Universal Standard Key Board is not arranged in the 
alphabetical order or 'abed' order. 

Frequently occurring letters like "e,r,l", are fixed in the middle 
of the key board to be operated by strong fingers. 

According to the strength of the fingers, the other letters are arranged in 
the Key Board. So the Keys are not arranged in the alphabetical order. 

There are 44 character keys in the Key Board, in all Typewriters. 
Each Key represents two letters (upper case and lower case characters) 

There are 9 non- character Keys are also found in the Key Board. 
They are as follows: 

1. Shift Keys 4. Back spacer 7. Key releaser 

2. Shift lock 5.Tablulater 8. Space Bar 

3. Margin Releaser 6. Ribbon position Indicator 9. Personal touch Indicator 

105 



When we operate the character Key, the carriage moves 1 degree towards 
left with making an impression. 

When we operate non-character Key, the carriage moves 1 degree towards 
left but not making any impression. 

Dead Key is a Key which gives an impression but not making the carriage 
to move. It is available only in Tamil type writer . 

'N' and 'H' are called master Keys. These are used to check up the alignment. 

'a' and ';' are called Guide Keys and the two little fingers are called 
Guide fingers, 'asdf'and ';lkj' are called Home Key. 

NON- CHARACTER KEYS AND THEIR USES : 

1 . SHIFT KEYS: There are two shift keys and one shift lock on the Key Board. 
Two shift Keys are placed on the both side of the Key Board. Shift Key is used to type 
the upper case character occasionally but Improper uses of shift key causes Bad 
Alignment. The two shift keys are for the use of easy manipulation. 

2. SHIFT LOCK: The shift lock is used to type the upper case character 
continuously and also to type headings, Boarders and under score in the display 
work. The shift lock Key can be released by using the shift Key. 

3. MARGINAL RELEASER: This is used for typing beyond the set margins It is 
used to complete a word on the right side margin. It is also used on the left side for 
typing marginal notes paragraph numbers and etc. 

4. BACK SPACER : when we operate the back spacer ,the carriage moves 
towards right by one degree by leaving blank space . this is used to fill up omissions 
and to make correction. To type combination letters etc. 

5. TABULATOR: It consist of 

1. Tabulator Bar 

2. Tabulator Set Key 

3. Tabulator Clear Key 

There are as many number of tabulator stops in the tabulator rack as there are 
degrees in the carriage scale. 



106 



The tabulator bar is used to bring the carriage to any particular position quickly 
towards left . 

The tabulator bar is used to type tabular are columnar statements, specifications 
and indent paragraphs. (giving five spaces for paragraphs) 

6. RIBBON POSIION INDICATOR: 

Otherwise called ribbon colour indicator or ribbon switch or bi-chrome 
device lever, is fixed at the right side of the key board. 

The up and down movement of the ribbon is controlled by the ribbon 
position indicator. 

7. KEY RELEASER: 

It is used for releasing the type bars when 'jam' occurs due to mishandling. 

8. SPACE BAR: 

It is located at the bottom of the key board and operated by the right thumb. 
If we use the space bar the carriage moves 1 degree towards right without making 
impression (1 degree blank space). Also It is used for leaving blank space 
between words. 

SHIFT SYSTEMS: There are two kinds of shift system: 

(a) Segment Shift System. 

(b) Carriage Shift System. 

QUESTIONS: 

1 . How many Non-character Keys in theirTypewriter?. 

2. How many character Keys in the standard key board? 

3. What is meant by a Dead Key? 

4. What are the Guide Keys and Home Keys ? 

5. What are the Guide fingers? 

6. What is the use of shift Keys and shift Lock? 

7. What is the use of space Bar? 

8. What is the use of Back Spacer? 

9. How many kinds of shift system? 

1 0. What is the use of margin Releaser? 

107 



4. CARRIAGE 



CARRIAGE : 

Carriage is an important part in a 

typewriter. 

The carriage can move in both the 

direction. Carriage moves towards 

left whenever the space Bar, 

Tabulator bar or carriage 

Releaser Lever is used. 

Different sizes of carriage can be 
fitted to the Standard Typewriter. 

SIZES OF CARRIAGE: 

1. Foolscap Size: 

80 degree to 1 00 degree 

2. Draft Size: 

1 1 degree to 1 25 degree. 

3. Brief Size: 

1 30 degree to 1 40 degree. 

4. Police Size: 180 degree. 

5. Manifest Size : 240 degree. 




N «• 

Carriage and its parts 



1 



Line Space and 

Carriage Return Lever 
Line Space Pawl 
Line Space Knob 
LineSpaceGauge (1 ,2,3) 
Left Tumb Wheel 
Variable Line Spacer 
Cylinder Retchet Wheel 
Cylinder Ratchet Detent 
Release Lever 
Cylinder otherwise called 
Planten 

10. Paper Deflector 

1 1 . Frolnt Carriage Scale 

12. Cylinder Lock 



CYLINDER: 

It is also known as Platen. Cylinder is made of Rubber. The shape of the cylinder is 
round so as to get one impression at a time . It helps to feed the paper . 




There are three kinds of Cylin 



1 . Soft Cylinder 

2. Hard Cylinder 

3. Medium Cylinder 

The following points will prolong the life of the Cylinder: 

1. By giving light touch. 

2. By using backing sheet while typing. 

3. No oil should be used for rubber parts. Use petrol or spirit and 

4. Damaged or slippery cylinder is one of the causes for irregular line 
Spacing. 

5. Punctuation marks should be typed gently in order to avoid injury to the 
Cylinder 



108 



THUMB WHEELS: Otherwise called as 

Cylinder Knobs. There are two thumb wheels/ 

Cylinder knobs, each one on both the sides. 

It is used to insert and remove the paper 

from the cylinder. It is also used to rotate the Cylinder. 

VARIABLE LINE SPACER : 

1. To type on the ruled sheets. 

2. To type Chemicals formula and Algebra sings. 

3. To type component letter. 

4. To Give fractional line space. 



LEFT THUM WHEEL 




Variable Line Space Lever 



LINE SPACE LEVER: 

It is fitted on the left side of the carriage. It helps to return the carriage to the next 
writing line. So it is also called carriage return level 

PAPER BAIL: 

It is fixed above the Cylinder and has two rollers. 

It holds the paper firmly at the top. It prevents the paper from flying in the air. 

It helps to type up to the very bottom of the paper. 

CARD HOLDERS: It helps to hold the paper. To type on cards, envelops and we 
can type at the top of the paper and also to the bottom edges of the paper. It is also 
used to draw vertical ruling. 

CYLINDER RATCHET WHEEL : It is also known as line space ratchet wheel. 

It is a toothed wheel fixed at the left end of the Cylinder. It helps to regulate the line 

spaces (viz. single line space, one and half, two, two and half & 3. Etc). 

Worn-out teeth of the Cylinder ratchet wheel is one of the causes for irregular line 

spacing. 



DETENT ROLLER: It is a small steel roller pressing the tooth of the Cylinder. 
Cylinder rotates tooth by tooth to make space between lines. Worn-out detent roller 
Is one of the causes for irregular line spacing. 



1 . Cylinder Ratchet wheel 

2. Detent Roller 

3. Detent Release Lever 




109 



DETENT RELEASE LEVER: By using this lever we can type mathematical 
symbols and chemical formulae while the current page is being typed 

LINE SPACE PAWL: It is acting on the Cylinder ratchet wheel. It is attached to the 
line space lever. 

LINE SPACE GAUGE : It indicates single, double and treble line spacing. So, It is 
also called Line space Indicator. 

LINE SPACE KNOB and also called LINE SPACE ADJUSTING LEVER or LINE 
SPACE REGULATOR. It acts on the line space gauge and controls the line spacing. 

FEED ROLLERS: There are 2 sets of feed Rollers under the Cylinder. These are 
made of Rubber or Cork. When these feed rollers are in close contact with the 
Cylinder, they help to hold the paper firmly. 

MARGINAL STOPS: There are two marginal stops. The are on the Marginal rack 
and moved to the desired degree in the marginal scale. 

Left Marginal Stop: 

1. Control the left 

margin. 

2. Control the 

movement of the 
carriage towards Right. 

3. Defective left marginal stop causes irregular left margin. 

Right Marginal Stop: 

1. Control the right margin. 

2. Control the movement of the carriage towards Right. 

3. It causes the ringing of the bell and the bell warns that the line of typing is 
coming to an end. 

4. It locks the key levers. 

TYPEWRITER SCALES: There are four scales in the typewriter. 

1. Marginal scale or Paper Table Scale 

2. Carriage Scale or Paper Bail Scale 

3. Line finder Scale or Alignment Scale 

4. Front Scale or Line Space Adjusting Scale 




110 



PAPER TABLE: It protects the paper from the oil parts. 

RUBBER FEET: There are four rubber feet under the Typewriter for the 
protection of the machine. 

METHOD OF TYPING: Two types of typing methods : 

1. Sight Method: More strain, more mistakes-- Not advisable 

2. Blind Method: Without seeing the key-board typing the matter. It increases 
the speed - Advisable. 

Typing with uniform touch and with equal interval between operation of character 
keys is called 'Rhythmic Touch'. 

ERASER: The carriage should be brought to either end of the typewriter and 
correct the mistakes with an eraser, to avoid dust falling into the typewriter. 

Questions: 

1 . Mention the various size of the carriage? 

2. How many kinds of Cylinder? 

3. How many scales are there in the typewriter? 

4. How would you preserve the life of Cylinder? 

5. Give the other name of the Thumb knobs and mention its uses? 

6. What is the use of Line Space Adjusting Leaver? 

7. What is the use of Card Holder? 

8. How many marginal stops and what are the uses? 

9. What is the use of Variable Line Spacer? 

10. What is the use of Feed Roller? 

11. How many Method of typing? 

1 2. How to erase the mistake while typing? 

1 3. How many rubber feet in the typewriter? Mention its uses? 

1 4. What is the use of Cylinder Ratchet Wheel? 

15. What is the use of Detent Roller? 



111 



5. MACHINE 

MAIN SPRING DRUM: 

It is located at the left back side of the Typewriter. In this drum there is mainspring 
with tension. This mainspring tension is other wise called Carriage Tension which is 
the most important of the Typewriter. 

Main Spring Main Sprint) Drum (Back side) 




.wan- Su'H'9 > 
"tali. Sesl"«? 

Main ani'S 
Dryfn 



The carriage moves from right to left due to this mainspring tension which is 
situated on the left side. In Urdu (language) Typewriters the mainspring is fixed in 
right side and so the carriage moves from left to right when we type. There is no 
mainspring in Electric Typewriters. 

1 . Too much main spring tension cause the jerky movement of the Carriage. 

2. Too low main spring tension cause the sluggish movement of the 
carriage. 

There are other two main tensions in the Typewriter: 

1. Key tension. 

2. Touch Regulator tension. 

DRAW CORD: It is also called as Draw Band or Draw Strap. One edge of the Draw 
Cord is hooked with the mainspring drum and the other edge is hooked with carriage 
end. Due to mainspring tension the connected draw cord pulls the carriage towards 
left. If the draw cord is cut off, the carriage will not move. 

TYPE GUIDE or CENTRE GUIDE: It is also known as Common Centre Printing 
Point. It allows only one type bar to enter through and strike against the Cylinder 
while typing. It is cleaned with the Chamois Leather. 

TYPE HEADS: 

The following are the kinds of Type Heads/Type faces: 



1 


Pica 


... 10 Letters per inch 


2 


Elite 


... 12 Letters per inch 


3 


Roman 


... 09 Letters per inch 


4 


Gothic 




5 


Italics. 




6 


These typefaces should be cleaned with Petrol 



112 



RIBBON MOVEMENTS: There are three Ribbon Movements of the carriage. 

1. Up and down Movement 

2. Lengthwise Movement 

3. Automatic Reverse Movement 

Up and down Movement is used to utilize the full Width of the Ribbon. 
Lengthwise Movement is used to utilize the full length of the Ribbon. 
Automatic Reverse Movement is used to utilize the Ribbon for many times. 




01. 


Character Key 


02. 


Key Lever 


03. 


Ribbon Uiversal Bar 


04. 


Llink 


05. 


Ribbon Feed Pawl 


06. 


Bevel Gear (or) 




Ribbon Ratchet Wheel 


07. 


Ribbon Stop Pawl 


08. 


Ribbon Spool 


09. 


Ribbon Carrier 


10. 


Ribbon 



113 



RIBBON: 

Ribbon take is made of cotton or silk, dipped in ink. It makes the impression visible 
on the paper. 

There are two kinds of Ribbon: 

1. Record Ribbon: It is used for ordinary purpose 

2. Copying Ribbon: It is used for copying purpose 

Double colour Ribbon is called 'Bi-chrome Ribbon' 

To preserve the Ribbon from moisture or from dryness the typewriter should be 

covered soon after the work is over. 

Normal length of the ribbon is 8 yards and Vz inch. Width. 

Questions: 



1 . Where is the Mainspring drum Located? 

2. What is the use of Mainspring? 

3. What is meant by Draw Cord? Mention it's uses? 

4. What is the use of Type guide? 

5. Mention the kinds of Type faces/Type heads? 

6. How many kinds of Ribbon? 

7. Name the three movements of the Ribbon? 

8. How may colour types of Ribbon? 

9. Which is called Bi-colour Ribbon? 

1 0. What is the other name of Type Guide? 



114 



8. CLEANING AND OILING 



CLEANING MATERIALS : 




1. Long handled Brush. 

2. Type Cleaning Brush. 

3. Wire Brush. 

4. Oil Can 

5. Touch Oiler 

6. Petrol or spirit 

7. HatPinorsharppin 

8. Duster Cloth 

9. Chamois Leather or Polishing Cloth 



1 . Long Handled Brush is used to clean the outer parts (External Parts)of t h e 
Typewriter, (e.g. Carriage, Type bars, type segment and etc.) 

2. Type Cleaning Brush is also known as Hard Brush. It is used to clean the type 

faces by dipping with petrol. 

3. Wire Brush is used to clean the inner parts (Interior parts) such as key leavers. 

4. Oil can is used for oiling the outer parts. Only Typewriter Oil or three-in-one oil is 

used for oiling the Typewriter. 

5. Touch Oiler is used for oiling the interior parts (the frictional parts)- (like Ribbon 

gears, pinion wheel, escapement wheel, dogs and etc.) 

6. Petrol or Spirit is used for cleaning the rubber parts (Cylinder, feed rolls, type 

faces, type segment and etc.) 

7. Hat Pin or Sharp Pin is used to clean the dirt and dust which is filled in the slots 

(letters like a,e,o,u,d,g,r,q,andetc.) 

8. Duster Cloth is used for cleaning the base board, metal cover and for wiping-out 

the excess of oil in the carriage way rods. 

9. Chamois Leather or Polishing cloth is used to clean the nickel parts. 



115 



CARE TAKING OF TYPEWRITER: 

1 . Should clean the typewriter daily. 

2. Should clean the typeface/type head fortnightly. 

3. Should oil the typewriter monthly. 

4. Overhauling Should be done once in a year. 

5. Rubber parts, type faces should be cleaned with petrol. 

UPKEEP AND MAINTENANCE: 

1 . Typewriter must be closed or covered when it is not in use. 

2. It should be handled very carefully. 

3. Hard touch must be avoided and light touch should be given 

CARE SHOULD BE GIVEN WHILE PACKING: 

1. Bring the carriage to the centre. 

2. Two marginal stops should be brought to the centre 
(Close together) 

3. Space bar must be tied with frame. 

4. Shift Lock should be pressed 

5. Cover the machine with metal cover or by good cloth. 



116 



7. ENVELOPE ADDRESSING 

There are two methods of Envelope Addressing: 

1. Block Method 

2. Indent Method or Indentation Method 

In Block Method of envelope addressing, all the lines of the receiver's address 
should be commenced from one and the same degree near the middle-centre of the 
envelope. 

In Indent Method, the first line of the addressee's address is to be commenced near 
the middle centre of the envelope but the other lines should be commenced indenting 
or leaving five spaces after every one of the lines. 

There are two types of envelopes: 

1. Ordinary Envelopes or as Post Covers 

2. Window envelope or Panel Envelope or Outlook Envelope. 



TOP LEFT CONRNER TOP CENTRE TOP RIGHT CONER 

book post on LG.S.Only, (For affixing stamps), 

Urgent, etc. QMS 



LEFT CENTRE 
Despatch Clerk's 

Signature MIDDLE CENTRE 

Receiver's Address 



BOTTOM LEFT CORNER 
Sender's addres in 
Block Method in single 
line spacing 



117 



ADVANTAGES: 

1 . Window envelopes generally used by Insurance Companies. 

2. It saves labour and time. 

3. Address need not be typed twice. 

4. Risk of wrongly addressing in the Enveloping can be avoided 

5. It can be visibly seen through glass paper of the window envelope. 

PIN CODE NUMBER must be typed immediately following the name of the Town 
leaving a space after the first three digits. (e.g.Vellore 632 006) 

Questions: 

1 . What are the materials required for cleaning and oiling? 

2. What is meant by Window Envelope? 

3. What are the advantages of Window Envelope? 

4. How do you take care of your Typewriter? 

5. How do you pack your machine during travel? 

6. How many methods of Envelop addressing? What are they? 

7. Where to type the To' address and 'From' address on the 
Envelope? 



118 



8. ROCKER MECHANISM (INNER PARTS) 

Rocker Mechanism consisting of 4 Parts 

(I) Loose Dog (2) Rigid Dog (3) Escapement Wheel (4) Pinion Wheel 

LOOSE DOG: It is a small metal piece, which always holding the tooth of 
Escapement wheel when the machine is at rest. If there is no Loose Dog the 
carriage will dashes towards left the carriage. It is fixed with Rocker Mechanism. 

RIGID DOG: Rigid Dog is to catch the tooth of the Escapement wheel released by 
Loose Dog. The Rigid Dog is called so, because it is firmly fixed to the Dog Block. 
When the character key depressed the Rigid Dog hold the tooth of the Escapement 
wheel, It gives step by step movement of the carriage. 

ESCAPEMENT WHEEL: Escapement wheel is big wheel. Escapement and pinion 
wheel are fixed in the same shaft. This causes the degree movement of the 
Carriage. Escapement Wheel means that escapes from the dogs. Whenever the 
dogs acts the escapement wheel rotates tooth by tooth. 

PINION WHEEL: Pinion Wheel is a small wheel at the center of the typewriter on 
which the carriage rack moves degree by degree. Pinion Wheel is a smaller wheel. 
The carriage is moving on this wheel. 

TYPE BAR: There are many type bars as there are character keys. Type heads or 
type faces are soldered at the front end of the type bar. Type bar raises when a 
character key is presses. The front ends of the Type Bars are resting on a Cushion. 

CARRIAGE RACK: Carriage rack otherwise called letter spacing rack. It is 
attached below the carriage and is controlled by the carriage releaser. It rests on 
Pinion wheel and moves step by step movement. It isk having as many teeth as 
there are degree available in the carriage. 

SEGMENT: The shape of the segment is Semi-Circulark with slots. It is fixed just 
above the type basket. It should not be oiled. Segment slots must be cleaned only 
with Petrol. Type guide is fitted on top of the Segment. 

TYPE BASKET: Type Basket consists of Segment, type Bars, Type Bar Cushion 
and Type Guide, It is the resting place for all type bars, it is a Semi Circular in 
shape, when the Shift Key or Lock is pressed the type Basket lowers down to 
receive Upper Case Character. 

BACK SPACE PAWL: Whenever the back spacer is pressed, the back space pawl 
acts on the escapement wheel and moves it towards right by one degree. 

TABULATOR BITS: There are also called as Tabulator Stops. These are useful to 
stop the Carriage at the desired place when the tabulator is operated. 



119 



RIBBON CARRIER: Ribbon Carrier is also called, Ribbon vibrator; It carries the 
ribbon and supplies kit is a t the printing point to get inked impression, it is behind the 
type guide. It moves up and down movement. 

SEGMENT SLOTS OR SEGMENT GROOVE: Each type bar moves in its slot or 
groove in the segment. If the segment slots are filled with dirt, rubber articles, etc., 
The type bars do not resume their original positions and will result in jamming. 
Segment slots should not be oiled and must be cleaned only with petrol. 

KEY TENSION OR INDIVIDUAL KEY TENSION: This is the force by which the type 
bars and character keys resume their originals position after the Keys are depressed 
This is caused due to the action of coiled springs attached to the character key levers. 

CARRIAGE TENSION: Carriage tension can also be called 'Mainspring Tension' 
carriage tension is communicated to the carriage by means of Draw Cord. 

SHIFT KEY TENSION: This tension brings the segment in the case of segment shift 
machine or the carriage the shift machines to the original place after giving the 
capital impressions, and also firmly holding the segment to the carriage. 

LONG HEAR SHAFT OR MAIN SHAFT: Long hear shaft also called Main shaft is a 
rod with two bevel gears and worm gears connecting the two ribbon spool shafts 
which cause lengthwise and reverse movement of the ribbon. 

BEVEL GEAR: There are two bevel gears on the main shaft. One on the right side 
and the other on the left side. One bevel gear is attached to each of the ribbon spool 
shaft which causes the lengthwise movement of ribbon. 

SPOOL SHAFT: There are two spool shafts. A bevel gear is fixed at the lower end of 
the spool shaft. The main shaft transmits the rotation movement to the ribbon spool 
through the spool shaft. The ribbon spool gets the rotation movement from the main 
shaft through the bevel gears. 

LINE SPACE PAWL: Line space pawl is a small metal piece. If is attached with the 
Line Space Lever. It acts on Cylinder ratchet wheel thereby rotation movement to the 
ribbon spool through the spool shaft. The ribbon spool gets the rotation movement 
from the main shaft through the bevel gears. 

CYLINDER RATCHET WHEEL: Cylinder ratchet is a toothed wheel. It is fixed on the 
left side of the cylinder. It helps the uniform regular linespacing. 

TYPE BAR CUSHION: The type bar cushion helps to reduce the noise when the 
type bars return after striking the cylinder. Type bars are resting on the type bar 
cushion. Type bar cushion prevents injury to the type bars. 

BELL MECHANISM: If helps to maintain right hand margin to the extent possible. 
When the right marginal stop comes in contact with the bell hammer or bell trip, it 
causes bell action. (Line Locking System) 



120 



ALIGNMENT: Forming of letters in a regular line with even space between them is 
called alignment. 

CAUSES FOR BAD ALIGNMENT: 

1 . Improper use of shift Key. 

2. Bend in the type bar. 

3. Defective type guide 

4. Uneven Touch. 

RECTIFICATIONS: 

1 . The shift Ky should be operated properly. 

2. The bend in the type bar should removed. 

3. The type faces should be properly soldered. 

JERKY MOVEMENT OF THE CARRIAGE: 

1 . No oil in the way rod channel. 

2 Worn out teeth of escapement wheel. 

3. Over tension of the Mainspring. 

RECTIFICATION: 

1 . Applying fresh oil 

2. Reducing the main spiring tension 

3. Replacing the worn out of the parts with new one. 

SLUGGISH MOVEMENT: 

1 . Low Tension of the Mainspring. 

2. Oil clog in the way rod channels. 

3. Low tension of the Loose dog spring. 

RECTIFICATION: 

1 . Excess oil in the way mad should be wiped out. 

2. The tension of the Mainspring should be increased. 

IRREGULAR LINE SPACING: 

1 . Worn out tooth of ratchet wheel. 

2. Insertation of too many sheets with carbon. 

RECTIFICATION: 

1 . Ratchet wheel should replaces 

2. Only limited number of papers should be inserted 

3. Paper release Lever should be placed at original position. 

121 



SUDDEN STOPPAGE OF CARRIAGE WHILE TYPING: 

1 . Sudden decrease in the tension of Mainspring 

2. The draw card is torn out. 

3. Detective lengthwise movement of ribbon. 

RECTIFICATION: 

1 . The mainspring tension should be increased. 

2. The draw card should be replaced with a new one. 

3. The ribbon should to fixed. 

QUESTIONS: 

1 . What isk the function of Loose dog? 

2. What is the function of Rigid dog? 

3. What isk the function of Pinion wheel? 

4. Name the two dogs that act on the escapement wheel? 

5. Which wheel is responsible for the step by step movement of the carriage? 

6. How is carriage rack otherwise called? 

7. what is the use of carriage rack? 

8. What is the use Segment? 

9. Explain Type Basket? 

10. What is cylinder ratchet wheel? Where it is situated? 

1 1 . Explain Carriage Tension? 

12. What is the use of type bar cushion? 

1 3. What are the causes for bad Alignment. 

14. What is meant by Alignment? 

1 5. What are reasons for Jerky Movement? 

16. What happens if there is no rigid dog? 

17. What happens if there is no loose dog. 

18. If there is overlapping of letters, what is it due to? 

1 9. What is the meant by segment? 

20. What are the causes for sudden stoppage of carriage while typing? 



122 




KEY BOARD 



1 . Margin Releaser 

2. Tabulator Bar 

3. Ribbon Position Indicator 

4. Shift Key 

5. Shift Lock 

6. Space Bar 



7. Back Spacer 

8. Rubber Feet 

9. Personal Touch Regulator 

1 0. Tabulator Key 

11. Tabulator Set Key 

12. Key Releaser 



USE OF AN ERASER 




1 . Carriage 

2 Eraser 

3. Eraser ShieJd 



■ 



123 



RIBBON UP AND DOWN MOVEMENT 




1. Ribbon Universal Bar 

2. Ribbon Carrier 

3. Ribbon Actuating Lever 



4. Ribbon Actuating Lever Pin 

5. Character Key 

6. Long Key Lever 



ESCAPEMENT WHEEL & PINION WHEEL 




► ESCAPEMENT WHEEL 



PINION WHEEL 



124 



RIBBON AUTOMATIC MOVEMENT 




! Spool Cup 

2 Spool Core 

3 Trigger 

A. Ribbon Reverse Pin 



5. Ribbon Reverse Cam 

6. Long Gear Shaft Bevel Gear 

7. Spool Shaft Bevel Gear 



BELL MECHANISM 




1 . Carriage Rack 

2. Right Margin Stop 

3. Right Marginal Stop Projection 

4. Bell Hammer Lever 



5. Bell Hammer Lever Projection 

6. Bell Hammer 

7. Bell Cup 



125 



BELL MECHANISM 




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126 



Model of The Duplicator 




127 



9. DUPLICATOR AND ITS MECHANISM 

HISTORY OF DUPLICATOR: The duplicating Machine was first invented by James 
Watt in 1 780. Duplicator is otherwise called 'Multi Copier' stencil duplcating means 
taking a large number of copies. 

The special paper on which we cut matter to be multi copies is called the 
'Stencil Paper'. 

STENCIL PAPER: There are two kinds of "Stencil Paper" 
(1) Wax (2) Waxless 

WAX: It is used for writing purpose and Drawing Sketches. 

WAXLESS: It is used for typing purpose only. 

The two popular duplicators are (1) Gestetner (2) R.R.R. 

ADVANTAGES: 

1 . Hundreds of copies dan be prepared. 

2. Much time and energy is saved. 

3. All the copies appear like original. 

HOW TO CUT STENCIL: Before cutting stencil the types should be cleaned thoroughly 
using petrol. Before cutting stencil bring the colour indicator to the WHITE DOT. Adjust 
the stencil as per the scale marked in the stencil. Type with a firm and steady touch 
slightly heavier. Enclosed characters should not be struck too hard. When cutting is 
complete, remove the Stencil Paper using paper releaser. 

There are three ways of making correction in the Stencil Paper. 

(1) Using Correcting fluid (2) Using Gum Strip 

(3) Grafting. 



IMPORTANT PARTS OF DUPLICATOR: 

1. FEEDING TRAY 

2. RECEIVING TRAY 

3. OPERATING LEVER 
OFF/ON LEAVER 

4. HANDLE 10 - SIDE MARGIN PLATE 



7. BACKING SHEET LEVER. 

8. CYLINDRICAL DRUM 

9. MARGIN ADJUSTING KNOBS 



5. SILK CLOTH 11- PRINTING SCREW 

6. IMPRESSION ROLLER 12. WAVE ROLLER. 

128 



FEEDING TRAY: Feed Tray is also called as Paper Table. It is used to keep 
impression papers to fed into the duplicator one by one. 

RECEIVING TRAY: It is at the back of the duplicator. To receive the Roneoed copies at 
the Receiving tray. 

OPERATING LEVER OFF / ON LEVER : Operating lever is otherwise called 
Impression lever or Off / On lever or Pressure lever. The Operating lever 
should be kept in the 'ON position when copies are taken. But the operating 
lever should be kept in the 'OFF' Position when the duplicator is not in use 
(Copies cannot be taken). 

HANDLE: Handle is used for rotating he cylinders. It is always rotated in the 
clockwise direction. (Right side) 

SILK CLOTH OR SILK CARRIER: On which the typed stencil sheet is fixed and 
through which ink is supplied to the stencil sheet. It is fixed on the cylinder Drum. 

FEED ROLLER: It is used to feed the paper one by one to receive impression on the 
paper. 

IMPRESSION ROLLER: A Rubber Roller just placed under the cylinder Drum to feed 
the impression paper for taking copies. 

MARGIN ADJUSTING KNOBS: To adjust the Marginal Side Plates for getting Left 
and Right margins on the Impression paper. 

CYLINDRICAL DRUM: To fix the /silk /cloth sheet and to hold the typed stencil sheet 
over them. 

PRINTING SCREW: The printing screw helps to ;adjust top and bottom margin. 

SIDE MARGIN PLATE: To adjust the side Margin (left and right) of the Impression 
Paper to be fed. 

STYLUS PEN : Stylus Pen is used for writing or putting the signature on the stencil 
paper and also used to rule statements in the Stencil Papers. 

STYLUS PAD (SIGNATURE PLATS): Stylus pad is kept between the Stencil sheet. 
And backing sheet while using the Stylus Pen. 

CORRECTING FLUID: Correcting fluid is useful to make corrections in the typed 
Stencil papers. Correcting fluid is used to erase a mistake while cutting Stencil. 

GRAFTING METHOD: Grafting means substituting a new paragraph for the existing 
one. Grafting means removing the unwanted the typed matter and affixing 
thereon a piece of stencil after correctly typed. 

IMPRESSION PAPER: Impression paper mens absorbs the ink and dry quickly. It is 
used for duplicating purposes only. 

129 




1 . Paper Tray 2. Paper Side Guide 3. Adjustable Knob 

4. Operating Lever 5. Printing Screw (Up&Down) 6. Handle 
7. Paper Receiving Tray 




1 . Printing Screw (Up & Down) 2. Operating Lever 3. Handle 

4. Silk Carrier 5. Impression Roller 6. Receiving Tray. 



130 



PRECUIONS BEFORE CUTTING STENCIL: 

1 . Ribbon position indicator should be kept in the stencil Point (White spot) 

2. Types should be cleaned with petrol. 

3. Types as 'o' 'e' 'a' should be removed dust with hat pin. 

WHILE CUTTING A STENCIL: 

1 . Use a firm and steady touch (Hard touch) 

2. Do not type outside the mark of the stencil. 

3. Light touch must be given to 'o','e' 'a' 

QUESTIONS: 

1 . Who invented the duplicating machine and When? 

2. Mention five important parts of a Duplicator.? 

3. How many kinds of Stencil Sheets? What are they? 

4. What type of stencil will you use fo typing? 

5. How many making correction in me ?Stencil? 

6. What is the use of Handle in a Duplicator? 

7. What is the other name for the Feed Tray? It's use? 

8. What isk the process of Grafting Method? 

9. What is the meant by Impression Paper? 

10. What type of ink is used in Duplicator? 

11 . What type of pen is used to write on the stencil sheet? 

12. What is the thing (Fluid) used for correcting mistaking in the stencil? 

13. What is meant by Stylus Pen and Stylus Pad? 

1 4. What is the use of a Receiving Tray? 

15. What is the other name of Operating Lever? Write the uses. 

16. What is the function of Silk Cloth? 

17. What is the use of Margin Adjusting Knobs? 

1 8. How the waver roller is used? 

19. How will you type the letters 'o\ 'e' 'a' while cutting Stencil? 

20. What are the precautions to be observed before cutting a stencil? 

21 . What are the precautions to be taken before stencil cutting? 

22. For what purpose the duplicator is used? 

23. What are the uses of Operating Lever? 

24. What is the use of the Printing Screw? 

25. How do you preserve the Stencil Paper after it is used? 



131 



10. The following respectable terms are used either before 
the name or the end of the name of the addressing: 



Male (unmarried) 
Female (unmarried) 
Male ( married ) 

Female (married) 

Company(with personal name) 
Company(with impersonal name) 
Before the designation of officials 
Governor or President of India 

Madathipathis Head of Mutts Pope 

Christian Priest / Monks 
- do Nuns 

Judges 

Respectable authorities or persons 
- do ladies 
Physician Males 
Physician - Female 



Muslim Males 
Muslim Ladies 



Master or Selvan, Mr. or Thiru. or Sri 
(Selvan B. Sughanthar Master A. Newton 

Miss or Selvi or Kumari (Miss Vijayanthi, 
Selvi. Raja Rajeswari 

Mr. or Sri or Thiru. or at the 
end Esq. or AvI. (Thiru. K.Anandan, 
Amos Esq.) 

Mrs. or Smt. or Tmt . 
(Tmt. Savithiri Balaji) 

, M/s.or Messrs. (M/s. Spencer & Company ) 

.The (The Imperial Industry Ltd.,) 

.The (The Manager ) 

. H.E. (His Excellence) 
His Excellency 
the Government of Tamil Nadu. 

,. H.H. (His Holiness). 

His Holiness Kanchi Kamakodi 
Jaganatha Swamigal 

.. Rev . Father Arul Francis 
Rev. Sister. Daisy Rani 

. Mr. Justice Perumalswamy 
Chief Justice Mr. (name) 



Hon'ble Thiru. or Hon'ble sir 

Hon'ble Tmt . or Hon'ble Smt . 

Dr. Lionel Royston 

Dr. (Mrs.) or Dr.(Kumari) or 

Dr. (Tmt) Or Dr.(Smt) or Dr. (Selvi ) 

Janab Rafeeque Ahmed 
Janaba Shaheerunisa 



132 



11. MECHANISM QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 

1 . What is a typewriter? 

Typewriter is a machine which produces impression like a print. 

2. Who invented the Typewriter and when? 

Sir. John Henry Mill invented the Typewriter in 1714. First Typewriter 
brought to India in 1876. Electronic Typewriters were introduced invented in 1936 
by Muthiah of Ceylon. In 1958 Tamil Nadu Government approved a Standardized 
Tamil Key Board. 

3. What are the various kinds of Typewriter? 

There are two kinds of Typewriters. They are: 

1 . Standard Typewriter 2. Portable Typewriter 

Standard Typewriters are used in Offices, Institutes and Schools. 

Portable Typewriters are used for Camp purposes. 

4. How can a typewriter be identified? 

A Typewriter can be identified by its make (Model) and its serial number. 

5. How many keys are there in the Keyboard? 

There are 44 Character Keys and 11 Non-character keys in the Keyboard. 

6. What is meant by a "Dead Key"? 

The Dead Key causes impression but does not causes the carriage to 
move. It shows in the Language Typewriters. 

7. What is Character Key? What is non character key? 

The key which give impression while typing are called Character Keys. 
Keys which do not give impression are called non-character keys. 

8. Mention the Non-Character keys? 

(A) Space Bar, [Shift key], [c] Shift lock, [d] Back Spacer key,[e] Tabulator 
Bar, [f] Tabulator set key, [g] Tabulator clear key, [h] Margin Releaser, [i] Key 
Release key. 

9. What is the use of Space Bar? 

Space Bar is used to give one space between one word to another. The 
carriage moves to left when it is pressed. It is also used to type vertical borders in 
display work. Space Bar is fixed at the bottom of the key Board. This should be 
operated by right thumb. 

133 



10. What is the use of Back Space Key? 

Back space key is used to type (to fill up) the omitted characters. The 
Carriage moves one space to right side when it is press. 

11. What is the use of shift key and shift lock? 

Shift key is used to Type upper case characters (Capital letters) occasionally 
and to release the Shift Lock. Shift lock is used to type upper case characters 
continuously. 

12. What are the Guide Keys? 

Guide keys are 'A' and ';'■ 

13. What are Home Keys? Why are they so called? 

'asdf and ';lkj' are called Home keys. Because the respective fingers should 
remain on these keys when not striking the other keys. 

14. Which is the Master Key? What is the use of Master Key? 

Keys with capital letters 'NT and 'H' are called Master keys. It is used to check 
the alignment of other types. 

15. What are the various sizes of Typewriter? 

[A] Foolscape 80 -100 degree [b] Brief size 140 degree [c] Policy 180degree 
[d] Manifest 240. 

16. State the different kinds of Type faces? 

Pica (1 letters for one inch) 

Elite(1 2 letters for one inch) 

Roman/Large pica ( 8 letters for one inch) 

Madrid pica, Cubic pica, Cheque Writer, Italic, Script etc. 

The Kind types that is most commonly used in pica and Elite. 

17. What are the two kinds of shift systems ? 

a) Carriage shift system b) Segment shift system. Segment shift system is 
advantageous. 

18. What are the uses of Type bar cushion or Rubber bed ? 

Type bar cushion is arranged under the type faces. It reduces the sound 
while typing . It prevents damage to the type bars. 

19. What are the uses of variable Line spacer? 

The Variable Line spacer is used to type on ruled papers, to type chemical 
formula and fractions, to type algebra sings and to type double total lines 

134 



20. What is the link between pinion wheel and the carriage ? 

The carriage Rack is the link between pinion wheel and the carriage. 

21. When the Typewriter is to be taken to distant places, how should the 
marginal stops be placed? 

The two marginal stops should be brought together to the centre place of the 
carriage. The carriage does not move either left or right side. 

22. Why is the carriage always moving from right to left? 

The mainspring which givers the tension to draw the carriage is fixed in; the 
left back side of the typewriter. So the carriage is moving always from right to left, 

23. How many movements of ribbon are there? 

There are three movements: 

a. Step by step movement of Lengthwise movement. 

b. Up and down movement or Breath wise movement. 

c. Automatic reversal movement. 

24.What is meant by alignment? 

Alignment is the forming of letters in a regular line with even space 
between them. 

25. What happens if the Draw Cord snaps? 

The Carriage suddenly dashes to the left side. 

26. What is Mainspring? Describe the function? 

Mainspring is a coiled spring. It is screwed tightly and fixed in the Mainspring 
Drum. Mainspring Drum is fixed in the left backside of the machine. It supplies the 
motive power to draw the carriage towards left through the draw cord. 

27. How Many rubber feet are in the Typewriter? What are the uses of it? 

There are four rubber feet in the typewriter. 

Uses: 1. To reduce the sound and prevent the machine from moving 
while typing. 
2. To prevent damage to the key levers. 

28. How many methods followed in typing? What are they? 

There are two methods of manipulation of the key board 
They are 1 . Touch method or Blind method 
2. Sight method 

29. What is meant by touch system? 

Touch system means mentally locating the position of the keys by sense of 
touch without looking at the key board. 

135 



30. What is the other name of feed tray? 

It is used to keep the impression paper to be fed into the duplicator. 

31 . What is the function of the feed tray? 

It is used to keep the impression paper to be fed into the duplicator 

32. What is the function of Silk Carrier? 

The ink that is put on the drum spread on the silk carrier. The silk carrier 
evenly spread the ink on the stencil for impression. 

33. What is the object of using a duplicator? 

The chief object of using a duplicator is to produce hundreds of copies of the 
original typed or handwritten matter speedily and cheaply minimizing time 
and energy. 

34. What is the use of the margin adjusting knob? 

It is useful to adjust the marginal guide for maintaining left and right margin. 

35. What is the use of the receiving Tray? 

Receiving Tray receives and keeps the roneod copies one by one. 

36. What is the name of the instrument used for the affixing 
signature in Stencil Sheet? 

Stylus pen, and stylus pad or signature plate. 

37. What is meant by Stylus pad? 

A celluloid plate namely stylus pad is used to put signature or to write 
on stencil sheet. It is otherwise called signature plate. One side is rought 
and other side is smooth. 

38. What is the name of the pen used for signing/writing on the stencil sheet? 
The name of the pen used for signing or writing on the stencil is Stylus Pen. 

39. How will you write on the Stencil Sheet? 

Signature plate must be inserted between the Backing sheet and the 
Stencil (Roughside facing stencil). Therefore write on the stencil sheet with 
stylus pen. 

40. Name the two kind of stencils 

1 ) Dry type or waxless type 2) Wax type. 

41 . Which type of stencil is used for writing purpose? 
Wax type of stencil is used for writing purposes. 



136 



42. What do you do if mistakes occur in stencil cutting? 

Correcting fluid must be applied on the word to be erased, and allow to 
dry after a few second we can type on that the right letters. 

43. What precautions have to be taken before cutting stencil? 

The ribbon position indicator should be placed in the stencil point types 
should be cleaned with petrol. 

44. What precaution should you take while stencil cutting? 

1) Press the key with the normal uniform touch. 

2) Do not type outside the mark of the stencil. 

45. How will you preserve the used stencil sheet? 

The ink sticking on the used stencil sheet should be removed by applying 
a blotting/ absorbent paper. It should be kept in the tissue sheet and put in a 
flat file. 

46. What will you do if the corrections running to a few lines in the stencil? 
The process of grafting method is followed. 

47. Is there ribbon movement when you are cutting a stencil? 
There is no "Up and down" movement. 

48. What happen when the ribbon position indicator is in the stencil point? 
The ribbon carrier will not play up and down. 

49. What is meant by grafting? 

The wrong portion of the stencil must be cut and removed afterwards the 
matter typed on the fresh stencil must be cut and pasted on the earlier stencil 
where the wrong portion was removed. This is what is called grafting. 

50. What are the advantage in using a duplicator? 

1 . Hundreds of copies can be taken. 

2. Time and energy's saved. 

3. Secrecy can be maintained. 

4. Economy is maintained. 

5. All the copies appear like original. 



137 



2nd YEAR MECHANISM QUESTION AND ANSWERS 

How can we get good speed? 

1 . Concentration must be maintained. 

2. Do not look at the key board while typing. 

3. Light touch must be given. 

How many important wheels are there? What are they? 

There are three main wheels in the typewriter. 

They are Cylinder Ratchet wheel, Escapement wheel, Pinion wheel. 

What is escapement wheel? 

It is a large toothed wheel on which the loose dog and rigid dog act. It is in 

the Centre of typewriter just behind the Pinion wheel. 

What is function of the escapement wheel? 

Whenever the Loose dog and Rigid dog act the Escapement Wheel rotates 

Tooth by tooth. This causes the degree by degree movement of the 

Carriage. 

What is pinion wheel? 

It is a small toothed wheel on which the carriage rack moves. It is 

Connected with Escapement wheel.... 

What is the function of the pinion wheel? 

Whenever the Escapement wheel rotates the attached pinion wheel also 

Rotates along with the carriage rack resting on the Pinion wheel. 

7. Which wheel is responsible for the step by step movement of the carriage? 
Escapement wheel is responsible for the step by step movement of the 
carriage. 

8. Name the two dogs that act on the escapement wheel? 
1 . Loose dog. 2. Rigid dog. 

9. What is the function of the loose dog? 

When the machine is at rest the loose dog holding the tooth of the 
Escapement wheel. If there is no loose dog the carriage dashes Towards left. 

1 0. What is the function of the rigid dog? 

When the character key or space bar is depressed the rigid dog hold The tooth 
of the escapement wheel just released by the loose dog. 

138 



6. 



1 1 . How is carriage rack otherwise called? 

The carriage rack is otherwise called "Letter Spacing Rack" 

12. What is the link between Pinion wheel and the carriage? 
Carriage Rack is the link between pinion wheel and the carriage. 

13. What are the function of the dogs? How the step by step movement of the 
carriage takes places? 

Loose dog is in action while the machine is at rest. On applying a character 
key or space bar the loose dog gets clear and the rigid dog catches the same 
tooth just released by the loose dog. On releasing the key or space bar the 
loose dog catches the next tooth of the escapement wheel. Thus he step by 
step movement takes place. 

1 4. What is the use of carriage rack? 

Whenever the pinion wheel rotates the carriage rack resting on the pinion 
wheel moves degree by degree. This caused the degree by degree movement 
of the carriage. 

15. What is the use of the Ribbon Actuating lever? 

It controls the up and down movement of the ribbon carrier. 

1 6. What is Cylinder ratchet wheel? 

Cylinder ratchet is a toothed wheel fixed on the left side of the cylinder. 

1 7. Explain type basket? 

The type basket consist a segment, type bard, type guide and the type bar 
cushion. 

18. What is segment wire? Mention its other name? 

Segment wire is otherwise called fulcrum wire binds all the type bars. 

1 9. What is the use of the type bar cushion? 

Prevent injury to the type bars, reduce the noise while typing. 

20. What are the reasons for sluggish movement of the carriage? 

1 . Low tension of the carriage. 

2. Want of cleaning and cleaning in the way rod channel. 

139 



21 . What will happen in any tooth of the pinion or escapement wheel is broken or 
worn out? 

There will be an extra blank space / a jerk at a regular interval. 

22. What will happen if there is no carriage rack? 
The carriage will always be at the left end. 

23. What will happen if any particular tooth of the carriage rack is worn out or 
missing? 

There will be a blank space or jerk at the particular degree. 

24. Who invented the duplicating machine and in which year? 

The duplicating machine was first invented by Jame watt in the year 1 780. 

25. Name the principal parts of the duplicator. 

1. Ink drum 2. Operating lever 3. Silk cloth 4. Impression roller or 

pressure roller 5. feed tray 6. receiving tray 

7. printing screw Margin adjuster. 

26. What are the functions of the impression roller? 

Impression roller is otherwise called pressure roller. It is placed under the 
drum. It is useful to feed the paper and to get impression on the paper. 

27. What is the other name of the operating lever? 
Impression lever: ON/OFF lever; pressure lever. 

28. In what position should be the pressure lever/operating lever be kept while 
taking copies? 

The operating lever should be kept in the ON position and the pressure lever 
should be kept in the lower position while taking copies. 

29. Explain the uses of the duplicator handle 

Handle is useful to rotate the drum and take copies the Handle must be rotated 
in the clock wise direction. 

30. What is the other name of feed tray? 

The other name of the feed tray is paper tray. 



140 



31 . What is the function of the feed tray? 

It is used to keep the impression paper to the fed into the duplicator 

32. What is the function of Silk carrier? 

The ink that is put on the drum spreads on the silk carrier. The silk carrier 
evenly spreads the ink on the stencil for impression. 

33. What is the object of using a duplicator? 

The chief object of using a duplicator is to produce hundreds of copies of the 
original typed or handwritten matter speedily and cheaply minimizing time 
and energy. 

34. What is the use of the margin adjusting knob? 

It is useful to adjust the marginal guide for maintaining left and right Margin. 

35. What is the use of the receiving tray? 

Receiving Tray receives and keeps the roneod copies one by one. 

36. What is the name of the instrument used for the affixing signature in Stencil 
Sheet? 

Stylus pen, and stylus pad or signature plate. 

37. What is meant by stylus pad? 

A celluloid plate namely stylus pad is used to put signature or to write on 
stencil sheet, it is otherwise called signature plate. One side is rough and 
other side is smooth. 

38. What is the name of the pen used for signing/ writing on the stencil sheet? 
The name of the pen used for signing or writing on the stencil is Stylus pen. 

39. How will you write on the stencil sheet? 

Signature plate must be inserted between the Backing sheet and the stencil 
(Rough side facing stencil) Thereafter write on the stencil sheet with stylus 
pen. 

40. Name the two kinds of stencils 

1 . Dry type or wax less type 2. Wax type 



141 



41 . Which type of stencil is used for writing purpose? 
Wax type of stencil is used for writing purpose 

42. What do you do if mistakes occur in stencil cutting? 

Correcting fluid must be applied on the word to be erased and allow to dry after 
a few seconds we can type on that the right letters. 

43. What precautions have to be taken before cutting stencil? 

The ribbon position indicator should be placed in the stencil point types should 
be cleaned with petrol. 

44. What precaution should you take while stencil cutting? 

1 . Press the keys with the normal uniform touch. 

2. Do not type outside the mark of the stencil. 

45. How will you preserve the used stencil sheet? 

The ink sticking on the used stencil sheet should be removed by applying a 
blotting /absorbent paper. It should be kept in the tissue sheets and put in a flat 
file. 

46. What will you do if the corrections running to a few lines in the stencil? 
The process of grafting method is followed. 

47. Is there ribbon movement when you are cutting a stencil? 
There is no "up and down" movement. 

48. What happen when the ribbon position indicator is in the stencil point? 
The ribbon carrier will not play up and down. 

49. What is meant by grafting? 

The wrong portion of the stencil must be cut and removed afterwards the mater 
typed on the fresh stencil must be cut and pasted on the earlier stencil where the 
wrong portion was removed. This is what is called grafting. 

50. What are the advantage in using a duplicator? 



Hundreds of copies can be taken. 
Time and energy is saved. 
Secrecy can be maintained. 
Economy is maintained. 
All the copied appear like original. 

142 



2. COMPUTER OPERATION- PRACTICAL - II 

CHAPTER I 

AN INTRODUCTION TO STAROFFICE WRITER. 

1.1. An Introduction to StarOffice 

StarOffice is an application that is designed to work on different operating systems. 
StarOffice is a full-featured office productivity suite with powerful standard one 
applications that can also open, edit, and save Microsoft Office documents. Whether you 
are writing a letter performing complex calculations, creating a presentation or creating a 
database, you will find that Star Office meets your needs. 

StarOffice consists of several applications. These applications are grouped together 
into an integrated environment in which one can do several things. Listed below are some 
of the Star Office functions, 

Create text document using Star Office Writer 
Create spreadsheets using star Office Calc 
Create presentations using Star Office impress 
Draw using StarOffice draw 
Create a database using StarOffice Base 

To Start star Office, 



a) 
b) 
c) 



On the task bar, click the Start button 

Choose All Programs ► Star Office 8 folder. 

Chick the StarOffice Program that you want to start 



e 

|z-. 






^C^^Mi H v '"" 


o ■ 

a--- 


I ■mm in . 



Fig 1.1. Selection StarOffice Writer from Start 

StarOffice Writer is a word processor. The term word processing refers to the 
activity carried out using a computer and suitable software to create, view edit, 
manipulate, transmit, store, retrieve and print documents. A document may contain text, 
tables graphs, charts equations, pictures and drawings. 

143 



1.2. Creating a New Document Using StarOffice Writer: 

The File > New > Text Document command can then be used 

to open a new document. 

1.3. Entering Text in the Document 

Once a new document is opened, the text of the document can be typed in big 
blank area of the screen. To create a document the user can start typing straight away. 
When the text being typed reaches the end of the line, StarOffice Writer will 
automatically wrap the text to the next line. The Enter key must not be pressed at the 
end of the each line. The Enter key should be pressed only at the end of a paragraph or 
when a blank line is to be inserted. When a page is filled up, StarOffice Writer 
automatically creates a new page. 

1 .4. Saving, Closing and Opening Documents: 
1.4.1 Saving a document. 

To save a document for a first time following steps are used. 

a) File >Save command is selected or icon is clicked. Save As dialog box 

b) To select a drive, up one level icon is clicked, then a list of drives will be 
displayed. On the list of drives, a double click is made on he required drive. Now 
a list of folders available on that drive is displayed. 

c) A double click is made on the required folder and the file name is given in the 
File Name list box 

d) Choose the required document type from the Save as type list box and click on 
the Save button to save the document in that type. The document is now 
saved and a file name appears in the title bar. 

Once a file is saved under a name, to save it again the name need not be entered 

again. The file can be saved simply by selecting the File >Save command or by 

clicking the Save button. Ctrl + S is the key board shortcut for saving the document 

1.4.2. Closing a Document 

After a document is saved , it is not closed. It remains open so that the user can 
continue working. When the work is finished, the user should save and close the 

document. After saving the document can be closed using the File > Close 

command. 

1.4.3. Opening a Document 

To reopen a document that has been saved and closed, the file > Open 

command can be used. 
An alternate method of opening files is to click on the Open File icon. 

144 



1.4.4 Working with Multiple Documents 

a) Click on the Window menu option and select the file from the list of documents 
displayed. 

b) Click on the document button visible on the task bar. 

These documents can be closed one by one by using the File — > Close command. 
1 .5. Moving Around the Document 

Table 1.1. Keyboard movement keys. 



To move 


Press 


One character to the left 


LEFT ARROW 


One character to the right 


RIGHT ARROW 


One word to the left 


CTRL+LEFT ARROW 


One word to the right 


CTRL+RIGHT ARROW 


One cell to the left (in a table) 


SHIFT+TAB 


One cell to the right (in a table) 


TAB 


Up one line 


UP ARROW 


Done one line 


DOWN ARROW 


To the end of a line 


END 


To the beginning of a line 


HOME 


Up one screen (scrolling) 


PAGE UP 


Down one screen (scrolling) 


PAGE DOWN 


To the end of a document 


CTRL+END 


To the beginning of a document 


CTRL+HOME 



Learn by Solving 

a) Enter the following text 

According to legend, the ancient Olympic Games were founded by Heracles.Yet 
the first Olympic Games for which we still have written records were held in 776 
BCE (though it is generally believed that the Games had been going on for many 
years already.) At this Olympic Games a naked runner ,Coroebus (a cook from 
Elis), won the solve event at the Olympics, the stade a run of approximately 1 92 
meters (210 yards). This made Coroebus the very first Olympic champion in 
history. 

The ancient Olympic Games grew and continued to be played every four years 
for nearly 1 200 years. 

b) Save the text as Exercise 1 and close the file. 

c) Open the document Exercise 1 and add the following paragraph it Save the file 
and close the file. 

145 



1.6. Scrolling the Document 

The Scrolling procedure is as follows: 

i) To scroll left and right the left and right arrow respectively should be 
clicked. 

ii) To scroll up and down the up and down arrow respectively should be 
clicked 

iii) To scroll a relative distance in the document the scroll box should the 
user can 

know the current age number by booking at the pop-up page number that appears 
next to the scroll bar. 

Scrolling a document does not move the insertion Point. The mouse click should 
be used to get the I-beam at the required place. 

Learn by solving 

Open the previously saved document Exercise 1 and see if all the keyboard option 
works to move around the document. Also try using the scroll bars and scroll arrow keys. 

1.7. Correcting Mistakes 

All the Characters, which are typed, appear on the screen. If a mistake is 
identified it can be corrected either using the Backspace key or the Delete key. 
Backspace key deletes the characters to the left of the insertion point. Delete key 
deletes the characters to the right of the insertion point. 

1.8. Inserting Text 

To add text the insertion point is placed where the new texts to start and the 
text is typed. The new text will be inserted and the existing text would move to the 
right. 

As the corrections are being carried out periodically the user should save the 
document using the File -Save command. 

1 .9. Selecting Text 

1.9.1 Selecting Text with Mouse 

The following steps are to be followed: 

1 . Insertion point is moved to the start of the text to be selected. 

2. The left mouse button should clicked, held down and dragged across 
the text to be selected. 

3. When the intended text is selected, the mouse button should be released. 

146 



1.9.2. Selecting Text with Keyboard 

Following are the steps to be followed: 

1 . Insertion point is moved to the start of the text to be selected 

2. The Shift key is pressed down and the movement keys are used to highlight 

the required text. 

3. When the Shift key is released, the text is selected. 

1 .9.3 Selection Shortcuts 

The following shortcuts can also be used for selection. 



Action to be performed 


To select what 


Double click on a word 
Click once next to the line 
Press Ctrl + A 


To select a word 

To select the particular line 

To select the entire Document 



1.10 Moving the Text 

The selected text can be easily cut and pasted in the required location. Following 
steps are to be followed. 



1 . The text to be moved to a new location is selected 

2. Edit > Cut is selected or icon in the tool bar is selected to cut the 

selected text 

3. Insertion point is moved to the place where the text is to be pasted. 

4. Edit > Paste is selected or icon in the tool bar is selected to paste the 

text in the new location. The text can also be pasted in this why to another 
or another type of Document. 

The following key board shortcuts can be used to move text 



Ctrl +X 
Ctrl +V- 



■> to Cut 
■> to Paste 



1.11 Copying the Text 

1 . The text to be copied is selected. 

2. Edit > Copy is selected or icon is clicked. 

3. The insertion point is selected where the copy of the text should appear and 
is Icon Clicked. 



Ctrl+ C- 
Ctrl+ V- 



-> to Copy 
-> to Paste 



147 



1.12 Finding and Replacing Text 

You can use the Find & Replace feature in StarOffice Writer to search for and 
to replace words in a text document 

1 . Choose Edit > Find & Replace. 

2. In the Search for box type the test that you want to find in your document 

3. In the Replace with box, enter the replacement word or phrase 

4. Click Find to start the search. 

5. When Writer finds the first instance of the word or phrase, do one the 
following. 

? To replace the found instance of the text with what you entered in the 
Replace with box, click Replace. 

? To replace all instances of the text with what you entered in the 
Replace with box click Replace All. 

? To skip the found test and to continue the search, click Find again 
Click Close when you have finished the search. 



Find & Replace 


<l 








I 






■_■'-- Horn v 




Find fill 


I 










Reolace with [ 


I 






l-atpsri| fl| 




[ Replace AJI 


I 


D Majch case 

n Whole words only 








| Mare Options ▼ Help Close 


I 







Learn by solving 



1 . In the StarOffice Writer document Exercise 1 try to add additional text both at 
the beginning, middle and end of the document. 



2. Make use of the Delete key Backspace key for making correction. 

3. Make use of the Insert key to insert anew word and see how the Insert mode 
changes in the Status bar. 

4. Select a particular portion of the document using selection shortcuts, cursor 
and with the keyboard. 

148 



5. Perform the Copy, Cut and Paste operations using the icons as well as the 
keyboard shortcuts. 

6. Make use of the find and Replace a given word and see how it works. 
Summary 

• Entering a new text or modifying the existing text in a document is known as text 
editing. 

• The user can move to the various portions of the document using the 
keyboard shortcuts or the mouse 

• The required word or portion of the text can also be selected suing the 
keyboard shortcuts or using the mouse. 

• Copy, Cut Paste, Find and Replace are some of the commonly used editing 
functions. 

Exercises 

1 . Fill in the blanks 

1 . The thick horizontal line in the page area is called 



2. key deletes the characters to the right of the insertion point. 

3. . option is selected to Cut the selected text. 

4. and are the two combo boxes available ink the Find and 

Replace dialog box 

5. key combination is used to move to the end of the document. 

II. State true or false 

1 . Enter key must be pressed at the end of each line 

2. To select the entire document pressing Ctrl + A is the hot key combination to be 
used. 

3. For searching a given word one need not have to type the required word in the 
find and Replace dialog box. 

4. To paste the selected word in the desired place insert key is used. 

5. Ctrl + X is the keyboard shortcut for copying the selected text. 

III. Answer the following: 

1 . What is meant by text editing? 

2. How would you select the required portion of the text in the document 

3. How would you switch over form insert mode to Type -over mode? 

4. What are the steps to be followed for searching a given word? 

149 



CHAPTER 2 

TEXT FORMATTING 

2.1. Formatting Options 

StarOffice Writer offers a number of choices for formatting such as bold or 
italics, and defining the font , type, and font size. Bold, italic or underlined are the most 
common types of text formatting. 

Click B to make text Bold 
Click I to make text Italic 
Click U to make text Underlined. 

The same can also be achieved by clicking on Format > Character and 

then selecting an option from the Typeface list box. 

For example, in order to change the word Computer from bold to normal 
appearance that word is selected and the icon B is pressed once This will remove the 
bold property from that text 

Alternatively Ctrl + B, Ctrl + 1 and Ctrl + U keys can be used to make the selected text 
bold, italic and underlined respectively. 

2.1.1 Changing the Fonts 

Method 

Click the down arrow in the Fonts Combo box of font tab Character dialog box 

Use Format > Character to open the Character dialog box 

From the list of available fonts, click the require done. 

The text changes to the selected font. 

2.1.2. Font Size 

Method 

Click the down arrow in the Size combo box of Fonts tab in Character dialog 
box. 

Use Format > Character to open the Character dialog box 

The text changes to the selected font size 12 

150 



2.1.3. Changing the Font Colour 

Method 

To use a different text colour select the text and click the arrow in 
the Font Colour icon. Acolour palette is displayed from which 
the required colour can be selected. A 
Alternatively, select the text and click on the Font colour icon 
to apply the current colour of the Font Colour. 

2.1.4. Highlighting the Text 

Method 

As mentioned earlier the character option under the Format menu can also be 
used to achieve all this, Clicking on Format Character display the Character dialog 
box. This method is used to make several changes at once or to preview the changes 
before applying them. 

Learn by solving 

Select a particular portion in the document Exercise 1 and perform the following tasks: 

* Change the text properties (normal to bold, then to italic and underlined) 
Finally bring it go normal type. 

* Change the font, font size, colour and observe the changes. 

2.2. Paragraph Alignment 

When each time Enter is pressed, the paragraph options for that paragraph are 
carried down to the next paragraph. And if a paragraph marker is deleted the paragraph 
takes on the formatting of the following paragraph. If one types a line, center it, and 
press Enter, the next line is centered as well. If a double-spaded paragraph is followed 
the a single-spaced paragraph, delete the paragraph mark at the end of the first 
paragraph, the paragraph will then be single-spaced, This is confusing for beginners 
who wonder how a paragraph got formatted without anyone making a change. One can 
think of the paragraph marker as the storehouse for all formatting options for that 
paragraph. 

Four types of alignment can be selected, and the best way to make a hange is to 
use the Formatting toolbar. Following septs are used. 

1. To change the alignment of one paragraph, first click within that paragraph. 
To change the alignment of several paragraphs, select the ones needing change. 

151 



Do one of the following: 

Click K to left align text 

Click HI to right align text 

Click * to justify text 

Click ™ to center text. 

The following keyboard shortcuts can also be used to change the alignment: 



Press 


To make text.... 


Ctri+E 


Centered 


Ctri+L 


Left - aligned 


Ctri+R 


Right-aligned 


Ctri+J 


Justified 



Learn by solving 

Open the document Exercise 1 . Carry out the following instructions and 
observe the changes. 

1 . Add a suitable heading at the top and center it. 

2. Select the second paragraph and use justify it. 

3. Select the third paragraph and right align it. 

4. Add your name, class and school's name at the bottom and right 
align it. 

5. Add the date at the bottom in the line below the title and right align it. 

2.3. Indenting Text 

For instance, indent the first line of each paragraph. This visual clue helps the 
reader to see how the document is divided into paragraphs. The paragraphs also 
indented, such as quotations that are set apart from the main document text. As another 
option, one may want to use a special kind of indent, called a hanging indent, for 
numbered lists. 

The amount of indent can be varied to the requirement, and one can use either 
the Formatting toolbar or the Paragraph dialog box to make a change, as covered in this 
section. 

2.3.1. Indenting Text with Toolbar 

Click the Increase Indent Icon; the paragraph is indented Vz inch from the left 
margin. The button again can be clicked to increased the indent. Each time the button is 
clicked, the paragraph is indent another Vz inch. 

152 



If the indent is too much or if one wants to undo the indent Decrease Indent Icon is 
clicked to decrease of undo the indent. 

2.3.2. Indenting Text with the Paragraph Dialog Box. 

The following steps are used to indent text using the Paragraph dialog box 

1 . Moved the insertion point to the beginning of the paragraph to be indented. To 
indent several paragraphs, select those paragraphs. 



2. Select Format 



Paragraph command. 



3. Click the Indents & Spacing tab in the Paragraph dialog box. 

4. Do any of the following. 

i) To indent from the left, type the amount to be indented in the Before text. 
spin box or use the spin arrows to selected a value. 

ii) To indent text from the right, type the amount or use the After text spin 
arrows to enter the amount in the spin box. 

iii) Click the OK button. 

The First Line option can be used to indent the line of the paragraph. Using the 
spin arrows, if positive value is specified, he line will be indented. A negative value will 
result in a hanging indent is the first line will hang outside the paragraph. 



Background 



Indents & Spacing AHqunen t | Tent Flow | hlurrtoerlng | Tzhs Drop Caps | Borders 
tadem 

Before test 

After tent 
Fjrst line 
E Me matt 



m' m 

0.C5- : 



Spacing 
Abcvs paragraph 
Betow [^rag-apti 



| floor 

O.CD" 




jsinrjla 



- 



Register- true 
□ Activate 



CK | | Cancel | Help | | Reset 



Fig. 24. Indents and Spacing Dialog box 



153 



LEARN BY SOLVING. 

Reproduce the following paragraphs as such using both, the toolbar icons and the menu 
options. 

A table is a collection of rows that are relate to each other by a command idea, such as a 
customer table, which contains all the information about the customers. 

Structured Query Language is the special language used to access the data contained 
in a database. 



2.4. Modifying Line Spacing 

To change the line spacing, following steps are used. 

1 . Select the paragraphs(s) that needs to be changed 

2. Select Format > Paragraph. 

3. If necessary, click the Indents & Spacing tab. The Indents & Spacing 

tab dialog box 

4. Click on the Line spacing drop-down list box, and select the required line 
spacing option. 

5. Click the OK button. 

LEARN BY SOLVING 

Open the document Exercise 1 . Change the line spading into 1 .5. line spacing 
and double line spacing and observe the change. 

2.5. Creating Bullets and Numbered List. 

One can also create a numbered list. Numbered lists work well for directions or 
other points one want to present in sequence. StarOffice Writer automatically numbers 
all the items in a list and the text is indented. 

2.5.1 Creating a Bulleted List. 

The fastest way to create a bulleted list is to be use the bullets button on the 
formatting toolbar. For this purpose the following steps are used: 

1. Select the text that to which bullets are to be added. The StarOffice Writer 
will add bullets to each paragraph within the selection, and not to each line. 
StarOfiice Writer will add any blank line within the selection. 

2. Click on the Bullets icon from the formatting toolbar StarOffice Writer 
creates a bulleted list. 

154 



2.5.2 Creating a Numbered List 

Following steps are used to create a numbered list. 

1. Select the text to be numbered. The StarOffice Writer will number 
each paragraph. Blank lines within the selection will be numbered. 

2. Click icon to create a numbered list. 

2.5.3 Removing the Bullets or Numbers 

To remove bullets from a list, the list is selected and the Bullets button is clicked 
again. To remove numbers for a list, select the list and click the Numbering button. 

2.5.4. Applying Different Styles for Bullets and Numbers 

StarOffice Writer provides various styles for the bullets and numbers, which can 
be selected using Format . Bullets and Numbering. 

LEARN BY SOLVING 

1 . Create a list of your favorite games. Number them using Numbering tool. 
Modify the list and add tow more games Change the numbers to bullets. 

2. Type a list of ten of your friends. Format them using the bullets option. 
Change the bullet and observe the result. 

2. 6. Formatting Using Styles 

This is an alternative way of formatting text. Styles require more advanced 
planning. The style needs to be created initially only then the style can be allied the text, 
using the Typeface list. The advantages of working with styles can really be appreciated 
when making extensive formatting changes. 

2.7. StarOffice Help 

StarOffice 8 provides several help systems that you can use while you work 

? Online help 

? Help Agent 

? Help Tips 

? Extended Help Tips 

155 



fi StarOffice Base 
^i StarOffice Calc 
2J StarOffice Draw 
StarOffice Impress 
StarOffice Writer 





Choose Help file list box 
We can access the StarOffice Help in several ways. 

? Choose the menu command Help - StarOffice Help, or press F1 This 
command opens the StarOffice help where you can search for a help topic. 

? Click the Help button in any dialog to open the help topic for the dialog 

? Click the Help button in any dialog to open the help topic for the dialog 

? Click the Help Agent that appears automatically when you perform a 
complex task. The Help Agent opens the help topic for the task. 

? Rest the mouse pointer over a menu command or over any icon to display a 
Help Tip. 

? To view a brief description of what the command or icon does, press 
Shift+F1 to display an Extended Tip. 

? The Help Agent is displayed on the screen in a small window. 

The Content of Help Agent window changes depending on what is being done in 
the main window For example, if some text is highlighted and the Bold icon is clicked 
the Help Agent displays help about the bold formatting option. 

156 





»' StarOffice Help - StarOffice Writer [ 


-Is Ml 




StsrafficB Writer *J <t + * <r ^* SB rW 




Contents Indsx || F Ind Bookmarks 


Toolbars 








^ Formulae 

#■ r'-Bsentslcrs and Drswriqs 

^- -fTrVL DwLmcnfes 

• Charts and Diagrams 

^ >lar-ns and Frnnrarrmhg 
^■lnstalstm 

# Common Help Topics 
^ .u.dL^rf h_- .."ji till* 




This section provides an overview of the :oalbars available in SlarCfnce writer. This 
ovei-Jiev.dEccribes-1-rc default t so bar canfgLraT ion tor StarOffice. if you have ructomized 
sny af the tcraba'5. ycur ccnncuratisn rright d Per I'orr :h« are descnbea nere 

Standard Bar 

Tne Standard Bar = available in every StarOfficB application. 

Formatting Bar 






The Formatting bar contains (several let* rarmattlnn functions. 






Picture Bar 






The Picture Bar contain; function; fo H formatting and positioning selected bitmap 
graphic*. 






Frame Bar 






when a Frama is select ad. tl e Frame Bar provtdas L-ie moat impur.unl Functions lor 

formatting and positioning the frame. 






OLE-Obiect Bar 






T'-its OLE-Dbjetl bar appeals -vhsu ubjetls are selected, and coiiUins Lhe must 
important functions for formatting and positonng objects, 






Table Gar 






The Table Bar contain; ^unctions you need ■vhen ^Mo-king with table;. It appears when 
you [[ uve [fie cuiscr into a l-jule 






Drawing Object Properties Bar 

The Drawing Object Properties B=r that appears when a drawing object s selected >— 

contains func-inns f-r earing -ri,- positi-n ng -hr= -ra'^ nq ob ect"- L*. 







Help Agent widow with help about Bold formatting. 



SUMMARY 



? There are two types of formatting (i.e) hard formatting and soft 
formatting. 

? Changing the text style-bold, italic, underlined, and the font properties - 

size, colour are the commonly used formatting changes. 
? Paragraph alignment can be of the following four types. 

1. Left alignment 

2. Right alignment 

3. Justification 

4. Centering 

? Indentation helps in providing the document more readability 

? The spacing between the lines in a StarOffice Writer document can easily be 
changed. 

? Bullets and Numbers are used to list the important points and messages. 

? An alternate method of formatting refers to creating a particular style and 
applying it quickly to a document instead of making individual changes to 
the line spacing, paragraph alignment indentation etc. 



? StarOffice has an on-line help facility. This facility can be used by click on 
the help menu. 

157 



EXERCISES 

I. Fill in the Blanks 

1 . The size of a font is measured in — -—and there are ———points to an inch . 

2. The — - — Printer is required to get the hard copy of the document in colour 

3. ———feature is used to mark the important portions of the document. 

4. ———key combination is used for justifying selected paragraph. 

5. The — — — is a named set of defaults for formatting. 

II. State true or false 

1 . Line spacing should always be an integer value. 

2. Indenting text helps to increase the readability. 

3. Modifying the line spacing will also modify the spacing between words in a 

line. 

4. To remove bullets from a list the list is selected and the delete button is 
clicked. 

5. Afont is a set of characters and numbers in a certain style. 

III. Answer the following: 

1 . What is the difference between hard formatting and soft formatting? 

2. What are the formatting changes that can be made with respect to the fonts?. 

3. What are the various types of paragraph alignments that can be made? 

4. What does indenting the next mean? 

5. How would you create the bullets and numbered list?. 



158 



CHAPTER 3 

CORRECTING SPELLING MISTAKES 

STAROFFICE WRITER includes a dictionary and spell-check program. 
StarOffice Writer can identify the spelling mistakes as the document is typed or after the 
entire document is typed. 

3.1. Checking Spelling While Typing 

These mistakes can be corrected in two ways. 

1 . Backspace key is pressed to delete a misspelled word and the word is 
retyped 

2. If the right spelling is not known, StarOffice Writer can help the user with 
somechoices. The misspelled word is right clicked. Apop up menu appears 
on he screen. If the correct spelling shown, a click is made on that word. 
StarOffice Writer makes the replacement 



k Untitledl - StarOffice Writer 



Eile Edit View Insert Format Table lools Window He^ 



QElfxi 



Default 



Thorndale 



12 



B / U = ~ = m & S «p -£ 1 




6 * 



< 



Page 1/1 



Spawn 

Spoon 

Spun 

Span 

Spin 

Spine 

Spain 

■ . ir 



Speltheck... 
Add ► 

Ignore All 
AutaCorrect ► 



@ 



> 



100% INSRT STD HYP 



Fig. 3.1. A popup menu displaying alternatives for the word "span" 



159 



3.2. Checking the Spelling after the Document is Typed 

The following steps are used for a spell check. 

Tools > Spelling >• Check is selected or is selected or ABC is 

clicked. To check a part of the document only that portion is selected. The F7 key may 
also be pressed to select the spelling command. 

Not in dictionary text area displays the misspelled word and the suggestions list 
displays any alternate spellings. 

Any of the following can be done: 

? To skip this occurrence but stop on the next one. Ignore Once button is 
clicked. To skip all occurrences of this word Ignore All button is clicked. 

? To replace the word with one of he selected spellings in the suggestion list 
that spellings is clicked, and Changes button is clicked to change this 
occurrence and Change All button is clicked to replace all occurrences of 
the world. 

? If none of he replacements is correct, correction can be made manually in 
the Not in dictionary text are. Add button is clicked to add the word to the 
dictionary. 

Learn by solving 

1. Open the document Exercise 1 . Ensure that the Auto Spell check is ON. 
Add the following paragraph to the existing text. As you are typing make 
some spelling mistakes intentionally and observe how the Auto Spell check 
works. 

2. It is more than likely that many of today's Olympic disciplines are 
sophisticated versions of the games of strength and speed that 
flourished in ancient India and Greece. Chess, Wresting, Polo, archery 
and hockey (possibly a fall-out from polo) are some of the games believed to 
have originated in India. 

3. Now, Switch off the Auto Spell check option and makes some more spelling 
mistakes. Correct them using the Spelling correction dialog box. 

3.3. Auto Correct Option 

For instance, if a user feels that the word 'colour' is frequently mistyped as color or 
in any other wrong way he/she can add an Auto Correct entry and the StarOffice Writer 
will make the correct replacement every time that word 'colour' is wrongly typed. 

160 



3.4. Creating AutoCorrect Entry 

If he error and is correction are to be added to the Auto Correct list the following 
command is used: Tools > AutoCorrect 

With the Replace tab selected the word to be replaced is typed in the Replace 
text box and the replacement word in the With text box. When the same mistake is made 
StarOffice Writer will automatically replace the misspelled word with the correct spelling. 



AutoCorrect 



Replacements and exceptions for language : English (USA) 



Replace Exceptions Optbns Custom Quotes Word Completion 
Replace With: 

speach speech 



somtlmes 


sometimes 


" 


sot hat 


so that 




soudn 


sound 




soudns 


■Ec.inds 




speclflcaly 


specifically 


speclficalyl 


specifically 




statment 


statement 




statments 


statements 




stnad 


stand 




stopry 


story 




stoyr 


story 




stpo 


stop 




strentgh 


strength 


i 


stroy 


story 


struggel 


struggle 




strugle 


struggle 




studnet 


student 


- 


t .11 





Delete 



OK 



Cancel 



Help 



Reset 



Learn by solving 



Fig 3.3 Auto Correct Dialog Box 



Type the following words and observe how StarOffice Writer's Autocorrect 
feature correct them. 



a) And 


b) Actually 


c) After the 


d) Can 


e) clear 


f) The 


g) That 


h) This 


i) To the 


j) type 



2. Open Auto Correct dialog box and type the word organization in Replace 
list and organizations in with list and press OK. Now in the document type 
the word organization and observe what happens. 



161 



Summary 

? Spelling mistakes can be corrected both while typing as well as after the 
entire document is typed. 

? Automatic Spelling Correction feature corrects some of the misspelled words. 

? Auto Correct option is very useful for correcting the spelling of the commonly 
misspelled words. 

Exercises 

I. Fill in the Blanks: 

1 . The — key is pressed to select the Spelling Correct dialog box 

2. The — button is used to skip the spelling change for the current word. 

3. ————— option can be used to automatically replace the misspelled word 
with the correct spelling. 

II. State true or false 

1 . If the right spelling is not known StarOffice Writer can help the user with some 
choices 

2. StarOffice Writer puts a squiggly green line under some word to alert some 
possible spelling mistakes. 

3. The StarOffice Writer will automatically correct some of the common 
misspelling. 

III. Answer the following 

1 . What does Automatic Spelling Correction mean? 

2. How would you carry out the spell check after the entire document is typed? 

3. How would you add a word in the Auto Correct list of the StarOffice Writer? 



162 



CHAPTER 4 



WORKING WITH TABLES 
4.1. Creating a Simple Table 

The following steps are used to create a simple, default- style table: 



1) When Table 



Insert 



->Table is selected from the menu bar, the 



Insert Table dialog box, 



Insert Table 










yame | Student 


[ OK 


| 






Size 


Cancel 




Columns 2 










(Help 




ROWS 2 












Options 
Heading 

Repeat heading 






Ihe first 1 1 * rows 
D|gn|s£iittab!ej 
Border 




AutoFormat,.. 









2) 



Fig. 4.1. Insert Table dialog box 

In the Name text box the name of the table is given. Using the spin arrows in 
the Columns and Rows text box the number of columns and rows are 
entered. StarOffice Writer displays the table as a grid with the specified 
number of columns and rows. By default each cell includes a border. The 
look of this border can be deleted or changed, which is described later in this 
chapter. 

▼ x 



I'D' "SlktS <fi 5§ §§^" H T H >5 T Indexes and Tables x - _£> $ 
Fig.4.2. Floating Toolbar for Insertion function 

4.2. Entering Data in the Table 

Once the table is created StarOffice Writer places the insertion point in the first cell 
of the table. To move to the desired cell first a click is made inside the cell or the arrow 
keys can be used. One can also press Tab key to move forward through the cells or 
Shift + Tab to move backward through the cells. 



163 



4. 3. Adding or Deleting Rows and Columns 

After creating a table the required number of rows and columns can either be 
added or delete very easily. 

4.3.1 Adding Rows or Columns 

The simplest way to add a row is to press Tab in the last row of the table. StarOffice 
Writer adds a new row. One can also add a row or a column in the table by following the 
steps given below. 

1 . To insert a row, select the icon and press once. Now a new row is inserted 
below the present row. 

2. To insert a Column, select the icon and press once. Now a new column is 
inserted to the right of the present column. 

3. To insert more than a one row or column in the table, Table — > Insert 
Rows or Table — > Insert — > Columns command is used. From this one 
can select the rows or columns and the required quantity. If OK button is 
clicked he required number of columns or rows are added to the table. 



Insert Rows 



Insert 
Amount 



pr^ 



OK 



Cancel 



Position 



C before 



Help 



Insert Columns 



Insert — 
Amount 



Position 



II 



C After 



1 



*l 



OK 



Cancel 



Help 



Fig 4.3. Insert Columns / Row dialog Box 

4.3.2 Deleting Rows and Columns 

Rows or columns can be deleted by selecting by selecting them by using the 
command shown below. 



Table 



Delete 



Rows or Table 



Delete 



Columns. 



4.3.3 Deleting the Entire table 

If the entire table is selected by dragging the mouse across it and the Delete key is 
pressed, only the entries are deleted and not the table. To delete the table the following 
steps are used: 



164 



1 . The entire table is selected using Edit — > Select 

while keeping the insertion point inside the table. 



All command 



2. The menu option Table 
selected table. 



Delete 



Table is used to delete the 



4.4. Changing the Rows/Column Width 

To change the Rows/Column Width, follow these steps. 

1 . To resize a column, place the cursor in a table cell, hold down All, and then 
press the left or the right arrow. To resize the column without changing the 
width of the table, hold down Alt + Ctrl, and then press the left or the right 
arrows. 

2. To resize a row, place the cursor in the row, hold down Alt and then press the 
up or the down arrows 

Alternatively if Table — > Table Properties command is used one would get a 
Table format dialog box . Choose the Columns tab and type column size in the 
Column Width spin boxes and click OK button to change the column width. 

This method can be used when precise measurements for each column are 
known or needed. 



Table Format X 


T-ahJe THifFlnw Columns anrdara Background 


□ Adapt tab Ib widlfi 

l~1 AcUuit columns proportionally 








Remaining vjwc )].□□" 


* 1 £ 






♦ 


|3.«- BM- III 1 






[ OH. 


\ Cancel | 


Help 


| Beset 







Fig 4.4 Table Format dialog box 
4.4.1 To make selected Rows / Columns the Same Size 

Follow the steps to make the selected rows/columns the same size 

? Select the rows and columns that are to be resized. 

? To make all columns even, right click inside the table and select 
Column — ^Space Equally in the pop-up menu. 

? To make all rows even, right click inside the table and select Row 
^ space Equally in the pop-up menu 

165 



s 



Tablt 

EH ' ITr?'l«' D',^' 

hJed E3 m il m m ^ 1 

4.5. Table Formatting Tool bar 



Once a click is made inside a table a floating toolbar for tables appears at the top of 
the screen. The toolbar contains a number of icons which can be used for various 
functions related to the table. 

The function of each icon in the tool bar is indicated below. 



Table Fixed 

Table Fixed, Proportional 

Table, variable 

Merge Cells - This icon is used to combine two or more cell into a 
single cell. 

Split Cells -This icon is used to split a cell into two more cells. 

Optimise - Clicking on this icon displays a pop-up menu with options. 
Like space columns equally, Space row equally, Optimum row height 
and Optimum column width 

Inserting Row -This icon is used to insert a row below the current row 

Inserting Column - This icon inserts a column to the right of the 
current column. 



■ * 



E 





X 




II 




J , 



E* _ 



li 



Delete Row-This icon deletes the current row fro the table 

Delete Column -This icon deletes the current Column from the table 

Boarders - This icon displays a floating toolbar with different border 
option for the table, 

Line Style - This icon is used to choose the style of line to be used for 
the border 

Boarder Colour - Clicking on this icon displays a palette of colours 
that can be used as a border colour for the table. 



166 



LEARN BY SOLVING 

1 . Create a simple table as shown below containing 3 rows and 6 columns and 
enter the following data as shown 



1. 


Swetha 


100 


98 


99 


100 


2. 


Srinithi 


99 


96 


97 


100 


3. 


Pavithra 


100 


90 


100 


96 



2. Insert one row at the top and enter the following 

3. Add two more columns in the table between the Name column and Maths 
subject column for inserting marks for two subjects viz., Tamil and English and 
enter some fictions marks Also insert two more rows before the last row and 
enter the details for two more students. 

4. Change the borders, line style and background colour of the table to a new one. 
Summary 

? Tables can be easily inserted at any point in the document. 

? Rows and columns can be added and deleted at either at the 
beginning, end or in the middle of the table. 

? The row/column height/width can be easily resized to exact sizes. 

? The table formatting tool bar contains a number of icons which can 
be used for various functions related to the tables. 

Exercises 



I. Fill in the Blanks 



1 . A table is a grid with a specified no. of 



2. To move backward through the cells of the table 
combination is used. 



and 



key 



column to an exact size. 



-dialog box can be used to set the width of the 



4_ .._.._.._.._.._ _.._ tool bar is used to change the borders of the table 

5_ — — — j ........... command is used to delete the selected column. 

167 



II. State true or false 

1 . Every table is identified by a specific name. 

2. Rows and columns can be inserted only at the end or 
beginning of the table 

3. The entire table can be deleted by selecting it and pressing 
the delete key. 

4. There is a separate tool bar available for Table formatting . 

5. All the columns in a table will be of uniform width. 

III. Answer the following 

1 . How will you create a table in the document? 

2. How will you add a required number of rows and columns in a table 

3. How to change the width of a column in a table? 

4. What are the various functions of the icons in the table formatting tool bar. 

5. How to make the selected rows and columns of the same size. 



168 



CHAPTER 5 



PAGE FORMATTING 
5.1. Changing the Margin 

Using any one the following methods, margins can be changed. 

? Page Style Dialog Box 

? Changing Margins Using Rulers 

5.1 .1 . Page Style dialog Box 

If the user knows the exact value for the margins then the page style dialog box 
can be used to make a change. The following steps are used. 

? Format ^ Page command is selected. A dialog box appears on the 
screen. 

? Click the Page tab if necessary. 

? In Margins group, type the new values in the spin boxes or use the spin 
arrows to change the value. 

? Click the OK button. 

Use the Page Preview option in the File menu can be used to see the change. 



Page Style: Default X 




Organiser |Page Background Header Footer Borders Columns Footnote 




, 










Format Mj^ ££ v 
Width 16,50" *] 


Paper tray 








Height ll.QQ" Z 












Orientation © Portrait 
O Landscape 

Margins 






[From prater settings] 


* 




Page layout 

Format 

□ Register-trye 
Refferencfl style 








Lsft |o.79" ^ | 


Right aid left 


' 




Bfeht |0,79" * | 
lop [0.79" t | 


1,2,3, .„ 


* 




Bottom rj.7Q" ; 




1 














1 « || 


Cartel | 


tffc 


| S«et 













Fig 5.1 Page Style dialog box 

5.1.2. Changing Margins using Rulers 

If the user is not having the exact value for the margins then the ruler Option on 
the view menu can be used to change the margins 

169 



Following steps are used in this method. 

? If the ruler is not displayed in the screen, View -» Ruler option is clicked 

? The gray area of the ruler indicates the margin's top area. 

? The mouse pointer is then moved in between the gray and white area of the 
ruler 

? When the pointer is in the right spot, it changes into a line with arrows on both 
sides. 

? The margin guide is dragged to a new location. 

5.2 Changing page orientation 

To Change the orientation or paper size, the following steps are used: 

? The Format >Page option is clicked. The page style dialog box is displayed 

? Click the Page tab, if necessary. 

? Select the necessary paper format from the Format drop-down list in the Page 
Format section. Or enter the values in the Width and Height spin boxes. 

? For changing the orientation Portrait or Landscape radio buttons are used. 

5.3 Creating a Header and Footer 

To create a header, the Header tab on the Page Style dialog box can be used. A 
screen with various options for the header appears. Four spin boxes are also displayed, 
In those spin boxes are also displayed. In those spin boxes the distance of the header 
from the text area, the header height, the distance from the left margin and the right 
margin are entered. 



Page Style: Default X 


Organizer Facy Background HeadCf 


Fcn-lar . Bertie 


a 1 Columns 1 Footnote 








Hl-teflfarml 

3d me sartent left/right 

Left mar :-M 1 

Right margin 

Spacing 

□ Lfce dynamic spacing 

Height 

Hfiut* it height 








3.00' 


3 








|o.oo" 


3 


|0.2Q" 


"H 


|o.2d' 


"H 


Bftra... 














1 OK 


J | Caral | | yaip 


[ E.eeet 









Fig 5.2. Header dialog box 

170 



The same procedure is followed for creating footer. The difference is, to create 
footer, the Footer tab is clicked instead of Header Tab. 



Header 



5.4. Creating a Header and Footer 

When he documents are longer than one page normally some type o 
reference numbers are added on the page. For instance, page numbers are a must, Ir 
addition, the user may want to include other text that helps the reader identified the 
document. For example, the document title or the author's name can included in ever} 
page. Rather than typing this 



Footer 



Once the header and footer are created, the text to be included can be specified. 
This can be done in the following steps. 

1. Click in the header or footer area. 

2. Click on Insert — >Fields. Asub menu with a list of options appears. Clicking 
on an option in the list will insert the appropriate text in all the pages. For 
example, clicking on Insert — > Fields — > Page Number will insert 
page numbers on every page. Normal text can also be included in the header 
and footer. To do so, simply type the text where you want it. 









Page layout 
Format 

□ Register-true 
Reference Style 


Right and left 


KEHflNHHBF 


\ B, C, ... 
a, b, c, ... 
1, II, III, ... 

•June | 







Learn by Solving 



Change the margins and observe the 
Using Print Preview ensure 



4. 
5. 



Open the document Exercise 1 

changes. 

Change the margins to their original settings. 

that this has been done. 

Change the margins again using the Ruler option on the View menu and 

observe the change 

Change the page orientation and observe the result. 

Add a header and footer to the document. In the header area include the date 

and the topic. In the footer, insert the page number. 

171 



Summary 

? The margins for a particular page can be set to an exact value using a Page 
Style dialog box or approximately using Rulers. 

? There are two types of page orientation viz. Portrait and landscape 

? The page numbers of different styles can be inserted to a StarOffice Writer 
document 

? Header and footer are some references remarks added at every page of the 
document of the top and bottom margins respectively. 

Exercises 

I. Fill in the blanks. 

1 . The default margins are ———top and bottom margins and— -—left and right 
margin 

2. 1 — — - can be used to see the page format change on the screen . 

3. dialog box is used to set the width of the paper. 

II. State true or false 

1 . Header is normally used to contain the page number. 

2. The margin sizes can be set to an exact value. 

3. The desired page orientation is selected using a combo box in the 
page dialog box 

4. Margins can be resized by using the ruler. 

5. Portrait orientation is also known as landscapes orientation 
ill. Answer the following. 

1 . What does page formatting mean? 

2. What are the two types of page orientations? 

3. How can the ruler be used to change the margin? 

4. What is meant by header and footer? 

5. Explain the process of changing the margins using rulers. 



172 



CHAPTER 6 



SPREADSHEET 



6.1 Introduction 



This powerful computational tool could save time, help avoid endless and 
brain-numbing arithmetic, and eliminate mathematical errors. It was acknowledged by 
many that the invention of the spreadsheet, more than any other event, launched the 
personal computer revolution. 

6.1.1. What is an Electronic Spreadsheet? 

An electronic spreadsheet is a worksheet used in a computer to create and 
quickly perform "What if" analysis of inter related columnar data in workspace. 
Spreadsheet are made up of rows and columns. 

In a spreadsheet, the rows are numbered from 1 to some length (upto 32,000 in 
the case of StarOffice Calc) and the columns designed with the letters A through Z, AA 
through AZ, and so on , as provided different spreadsheet packages.) The term 
'spreadsheet' and 'worksheet' mean one and the same. 

The following simple example illustrates how to use spreadsheets: 

Consider an example of storing a number 1 50 in a cell and another number 1 6 
in another cell. Add these two numbers electronically and store the result in a new cell. 
For this purpose, let us use the cells A3 and A4 for storing the numbers 150 and 16 
respectively and the cell B4 for storing the su of these two numbers. 

For instance, change the number in the cell A4 in the above example. The 
spreadsheet recalculates the sum automatically and shows the result in the Cell B4. 



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173 



6.1.2. Spreadsheet applications 

There are numerous applications possible using electronic spreadsheets. Afew of 
the common applications are given below. 

? Payment of bills 

? Income tax calculations 

? Invoices or bills 

? Account Statements 

? Inventory control 

? Cost-benefits Analysis 

? Financial Accounting 

? Tender Evaluation 

? Result analysis of students 

6.1 .3. Advantages of using Electronic spreadsheets 

• Calculations are automated through the built-in mathematical financial and 
statistical functions. 

* Accurate results to any desired level of decimal points are possible. 

* Worksheets can be quite big in size 

* Any part of the worksheet can be viewed or edited. 

* Worksheet can be saved and retrieved later. 

v* Any part or whole of an existing worksheet can be merged with any existing 
or new worksheet. 

6.1.4. Popular Spreadsheet Software 

Commercial electronic spreadsheet packages are in use since late 1970s. 
VisiCalc (Visible Calculator) was the first commercial spreadsheet package developed 

for microcomputers in 1 979. It contained 63 columns (A, B, BK) and 254 rows. 

VisiCalc was essentially a financial analysis program. 

This package became very popular because of its ability to combine database 
management and graphics features with its spreadsheet. 

The other popular spreadsheet programs are 'Excel from Microsoft 
Corporation 'Quattro Pro from Borland International, 'Improve' from Lotus Corporation 
and 'StarOffice Calc'from Sun Microsystems. 



174 



6. 2. Working with StarOffice Calculations 

6.2.1 Calculations in a spreadsheet 

To enter the value 1 50 in a cell A3, position the cursor in the cell A3, click the mouse 
to select it and type 150. Now, you will find the number 150 appearing in cell A3. 
Similarly, enter the number 1 6 in the cell A4. Let us now add the values in the cells 
A3and A4 and store the result in B4. To perform this operation, select the cell B4 by 
taking the cursor to B4 and clicking the same. Type the formula as s A3+A4 or use the 
sum function as =sum (A3: A4). The formula appears in the in put line of the Formula bar 
(below the menu bars). Press the Enter Key. You will now find the sum 1 66 appearing 
the cell B4. 

6.2.2. Creating our First worksheet 

To work with StarOffice Calc. Open StarOffice and click on the File option 

in the main menu bar. Then click on New ^ Spreadsheet. A new spreadsheet 

opens up 

At the top of the window is the Menu bar. To use a menu, point to it with the mouse 
cursor and press the left mouse button. Then menu will open displaying a list of options 
and you can select any option by clicking on it. Below the Menu bar is the Main tool bar. 
Below the main tool bar are the function bar and the Object bar. These bars have 
shortcut icons for frequently done tasks. Below these bars is the formula bar. This bar 
is used to display the current cell and its contents. It also has a few more shortcut icons. 
Below the formula bar are the column headings of the worksheet. Next to it are the tow 
heading column headings of the worksheet. Next to it are the row heading the data area 
is in the middle of the window. At the extreme bottom are the Status bars and Scroll 
bars. 

6.2.3. Entering data in the Worksheet 

We can change the position of the cell pointer by clicking the mouse on the 
concerned cell or by using the arrow keys on the keyboard. The Tab, Home, End, PgUp 
and PgDown keys on the keyboard also allow you to move around the worksheet. 

We can enter dates in the worksheet just like we enter numbers and labels. Place 
the cursor in the cell where you want to enter the date and type in in as MM/DD/YY. We 
can enter the time in the worksheet by typing it as HH:MM:SS 

6.2.4. Saving the Worksheet 

To save the worksheet created, go to the File menu and select the Save or the 
Save As option 

6.2.5. Closing the worksheet 

In order to close the worksheet, go to File menu and select the Close option 

6.2.6. Opening a worksheet 

We can click the Open icon on the Standard tool bar to open an existing file 

175 



6.2.7. Quitting from StarOffice 

The Exit option under the File menu can be used to Quit from StarOffice. 
Learn by solving 
Create the Marks worksheet created above with the following data: 



Reg. No 


Name 


English 


Tamil 


Maths 


Science 


1000 


Kumar. A 


87 


85 


74 


86 


1001 


Aravindan J. 


63 


86 


62 


94 


1002 


Govindan S. 


63 


76 


73 


75 


1003 


Velmurugan T. 


75 


72 


63 


85 


1004 


Thamizharasi.G. 


75 


46 


52 


64 



Save the worksheet as Marks 

6.3. Editing the data in the worksheet 

To edit the data present in a worksheet, first open the worksheet by clicking on 
File -* open. We can edit the contents in the following two ways. 

1 . Type in the new data. The new data will simply over write the old 
contents of the cell. 

2. Click on the formula bar with the mouse, press the F2 function key or 
simply double-click on the cell. A vertical cursor appears on the formula 
bar. Move the cursor to the left using the left arrow key or the 
backspace key and edit the data. 

6.4 Creating Formulae 



The various operators available for calculations in StarOffice Calc are given 



below: 



176 



6.4.1 Arithmetic Operators 

These operators return numerical results. 



Operator 


Name 


Example 


+(Plus) 


Addition 


1+1 


-(Minus) 


Substraction 


2-1 


-(Minus) 


Negation 


-5 


"(Asterisk) 


Multiplication 


2*2 


/(Slash) 


Division 


9/3 


% (Percent) 


Percent 


15% 


A (Caret) 


Exponentiation 


3 A 2 



6.4.2 Comparative Operators. 

These operators return either true or false. 



Operator 


Name 


Example 


_ 


Equal 


A1=B1 


> 


Greater than 


A1>B1 


< 


Less than 


A1<B1 


>= 


Greater than or equal to 


A1>=B1 


<= 


Less than or equal to 


A1<=B1 


<> 


Inequality 


A1oB1 



6.4.3. Text Operators. 

These operator combines sections of the to the entire text. 
Operator Name Example 

&(And) Text operator: And "Star" & "Office" yields StarOffice 

6.4.4. Reference Operators 

These operators combine areas 

177 



Operator 

:(Colon) 

!(Exclamation point) 



Name 

Range 

Intersection 



Example 

A1:C108 

SUM(A1:B6IB5:C12) 



When arithmetic operators are used in formulae, StarOffice Calc Calculates the 
results using the rules of precedence following Mathematics. The order is as follows: 

1. Exponentiation ( A ) 

2. Negation (-) 

3. Multiplication and Division (*,/) 

4. Addition and Subtraction (+,-) 

Here is an example to illustrate how to create formulae: 

? Place the cell pointer in the cell where you want to enter the formula. 
In the Marks worksheet example, place the cursor in cell G3. 

? Type the formula as =C3+D3+E3+F3 and press the Enter key. The total 
mark of the student Kumar D appears in the cell G3. 



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Maths 


Science 


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95 


74 


86 


332 




4 


1001 


Anadhan 


63 


96 


62 


94 






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1002 


ASM 


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76 


73 


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The worksheet of the Student Database with Total 

6.5 Fill Command. 

To calculate other totals, we type the corresponding formulae in the 
cellsG4,G5,G6 and G7. There is an easier way of entering these formulae. We can type 
the formula in the cell G3 and then copy it to the remaining cells. This can be done using 
the Copy and Paste icons on the standard tool bar. Recall that you learnt ho to use these 
icons in StarOffice Writer. We can also use the Automatic fill feature of StarOffice Calc. 



178 



Auto Fill automatically generates a data series based on a defined pattern. 

1 . On a sheet, click in cell, and type a number. 

2. Drag the fill handle in the bottom right corner of the cell across the cells 
that you want to fill, and release the mouse button. 

The cells are filled with ascending numbers. 

To copy the contents of a cell, click on the cell, Click and drag the mouse to 

highlight all the cells where you want to copy the contents. Now, select Edit 

— >• fill — >• Down (or Left). The content of first cell will be copied in all the highlighted 

cells. 

Acontinuous group of cells in a worksheet is called a Range. 

For example, to copy the contents of cell G3 in the cells G4, G5, G6 and G7, 
highlight the cells G3 to G7 (also refereed to as G3:G7). Click on Edit — > Fill — > Down. 
The contents of the cell G3 will be copied to all the other cells. 

We can also use the Fill command to generate a series of the data directly from the 
values of the selected cells. First, select the cells of the worksheet that we want to fill. 
Choose the command Edit — > Fill — > Series. 

For example, select the range A1:D6 in the worksheet. Click on Edit — > Fill 
— > Series. Choose. 

2 as your Start Value 
2 as your Increment 
Growth ass the Type, and 
Down as the Direction 

Now, click on OK and you will find the worksheet filled. 

We can see in the dialog box, we can also automatically fill in series of dates and 
times. For example, to list all Sundays in a given period.say March 1 975, proceed as 
follows: 

? Enter the date as 2/5/1 975 into a cell. 

? Select this cell and adequate number of cells depending upon the stop 

value (in this case, 1 3 cells since the period is March - May 1 975) 
? Select the command Edit — >Fill — > Series 
? in the dialog box, select Day as the Date Unit and enter the Increment 

as 7. click OK. 



cell. 



The Sundays of March, April and May 1 975 automatically appear in the selected 

179 



6.6 Cell Referencing 

This type of cell referencing is called Relative cell addressing. Relative cell 
addressing is the default type of cell addressing used by StarOffice Calc. 

The other type of referencing used in spreadsheets is Absolute cell addressing. 
A cell address can be made absolute by using the $. (dollar) sign in front of row and 
column names. 

For example, the C4 becomes absolute when you enter it as $C$4 

Absolute cell addresses did not change when copied. 

6.7. Using Functions 

These function are available in StarOffice Calc in the pull down menu of 
Function Wizard window. The listed categories are listed in the category pull down 
menu. 

To select a function go to Insert menu and Select the Function and select the 
Function option. 

To select a function: 

? Select the category in the category box 

? Scroll down the list to find the function you want . Click on the function 
name to see a short description of that function on the right side of 
the window. Double - click on it to insert into the worksheet. 

f(x) The Function Wizard shortcut icon on the formula bar can also be to select 
and insert functions. 

One of the most commonly used function is the Sum function. 

For example, in the Marks worksheet, to calculate the total marks in cell G3, 
follow the steps given below. 

? Click on the cell G3 to place the cursor there. 

? Click on the Sum icon join the function bar, = SUM (C3:F3) appears in 

the cell 
? Press Enter to accept the suggested range. 
? The result, that is, 332 is displayed in the cell G3 

Learn by Solving 

1 . open the worksheet Marks. 

2. Use a formula to calculate the total in cell G3. 

3. Use the Fill command to copy the formula to the cellG4:G7 

180 



4. Close the worksheet without saving. 

5. Open the worksheet again and use the Sum function to calculate the 
total in cell G3 

6. Use the Fill command to copy the formula to the cells G4:G7 

7. Save the worksheet. 

8. Enter a formula in cell H3 to calculate the average marks. 

9. Use the Fill command to copy the formula to the cells H4:H7 

1 0. Close the worksheet without saving. 

11. Open the worksheet again and use the AVERAGE function to calculate 
the average in cell H3 

1 2. Use the Fill command to copy the formula to the cells H4:H7. 

1 3. Save and close the worksheet. 

6.8. Date Arithmetic 

Enter a date 03/04/05 in a cell, say A2. Remember that while entering dates the 
month always comes first. Suppose you ant to calculate the date 79 days after this date. 
To do so, enter the formula =A2+79, in another cell,sayA4. The date 05/22/05 appears. 

Now, suppose you want to calculate the difference between two dates, 05/1 0/05 
and 1 2/08/70. to do so, enter the two dates in two different cells. In a third cell enter the 
formula =f irst ceii - second cell. The result will be displayed as 1 2572 

6.9 Formatting the Worksheet 

g This is the Bold icon and is used to display data in bold. To use this icon, 
highlight the cells and click on the icon. 



/ This icon is used to display the data in italics. 

y This is used to underline the data in highlighted cells. 



Times New Roman 



This is the Change Font icon. This icon displays 
list of fonts that can be used. Select the font by 
clicking on it. 



12 



This icon is used to change the font size of the data, to do so, 
select the data and click on the icon. 



181 



A 




This is the Font Colour icon. This can be used to change the font colour. 

_ There are Align Left, Align Center, Align Right and Justify 

— — icons. They are used to align the contents of the cells. 

This is the Number Format: Currency icon. Clicking on this will 
display the contents of the selected cells in currency format that 
is with a $ in front and with two decimal digits. 

This is the Number Format: Percent icon. Clicking on this icon 
will display the current contents in percentage format. Note that it 
multiplies the contents of the cell by 10 and displays the result with 2 
decimals. 



*% This is the Number Format: Standard icon. Clicking on this icon will 
display the contents of the selected cells in the default format. 



o-i .ooo These are the Number Format: Add Decimal and Number Format: 
Delete Decimal icons. They are used increase or decrease the 
number of decimal digits that are to be displayed in the selected cells. 

The Format menu can also be used to format cells. To do so, select the cells you 
want to format and click on Format — > Cells. The Format Cells dialog box appears 

6.9.1 AutoFormat Sheet 

The AutoFormat Sheet facility of StarOffice Calc helps to format the worksheet 
with different predefined styles and colour. For examaple, let us format the market 
worksheet as detailed below. 

? In the marks worksheet, select the cell from A1 to H7 

? Click on the Auto Format option on the Format menu. 

? The AutoFormat dialog, display various predefined format styles. 

A preview style is also displayed in the box. 
? Select the Default format. The formatted worksheet is shown 

below: 

6.1 0. Changing Column Width and Row Height 

To change the column width, select the column whose width you want to 

change. Click on format > Column > Width and type the new column width 

in the dialog box, which appears. 

You can also change be the column width in another way. Pointtothe line 
separating the column whose whose width you want to change from the next column. 
The mouse pointer becomes a double - headed arrow. Click and drag this pointer to 
the left to the decrease the width and to the right to increase the width. 

182 



Column Width \X 




Width 0.89"| 


A 


OK 


Default value 




Cancel 




Help 





Changing column width 

To change the row height, select the row whose height you want to change. 
Right click on the selected row and select Height from the menu that appears. Type the 
new height and click on OK. 



Row Height 


XI 




Height 0.18'fl 


■ 


Default value 




Cancel 




Help 





Changing row height 

You can also change the row height of a particular row by clicking and 
dragging the line separating that row from the next. 

Learn by solving 

Format the Marks worksheet as follows: 

1. Format all heading in Bold. 

2. Change the font,size and color of the headings. 

3. Change the format of the average column to display 2 decimals digits. 

4. Using AutoFormat change the style and colours of the Worksheet. 

5. Change the row width and column width wherever necessary. 



183 



6.11 Inserting Cells, Rows and columns 

To insert an empty cell or an empty row or a column in a row or column in the 
worksheet already created, follow the procedure given below: 

* Click the Insert cell fro View ^ Toolbar menu. A floating toolbar with four 
icon appears. These icons are Insert Cells down, Insert Cells Right, 
Insert Rows and Insert columns Icons. 

</ In order to insert an empty cell in a column and move the existing cells 
down, place the cursor in the cells where you want to insert the new cell and 
click on the Insert cells Down icon. 

</ In order to shift the content of a cell to the right and to create an empty cell, 
select the cell and click the Insert Cells Right icon. 

v In order to insert an empty row in a worksheet, select the row where you 
want to insert the new row and click the Insert Rows Icon. 

%/ In order to insert a column, select the column where you want to insert and 
click the Insert Columns icon. 

6.12. Deleting Cells, Rows and Columns. 

The procedure for deleting a cell(s), row or a column is the same. 

To access this command choose Edit — ^ Delete Contents. Click on the Delete 
all check box and click OK. To delete all contents from the selected cell range, select 
Delete cells from the same menu. 

If you want to delete an entire row or column, choose Edit — > Delete Cells. 
The delete Cells dialog box will display Delete entire Row(s) or Delete entire 
column(s). Clicking OK will delete the row or column without prompting. 

6.13 Inserting Pictures and Special characters 

For inserting a picture or a special character in a worksheet follow the procedure given 

below. 

? Place the cell pointer in any cell. SayB2 

? Choose Insert Picture From File. The Insert Picture dialog box 

appears. In the File Name combo box, you can type the path of the file 

that contains the picture or you can click the select the desired file from 

the gallery directory of StartOffice. After selecting the picture File click 

Open. 

? For inserting special characters, click the Insert Special characters 

from the menu bar and select the desired special characters from the 

Special Character dialog box. 

184 



6.14 Drawing in a Spreadsheet. 

For this purpose click the Show Draw Functions icon in the standard tool bar. 
The Draw functions bar appears and you can select any tool from this toolbar according to 
your requirement, following the procedure given below: 

? Click the Ellipse tool . Keep the pointer (cursor) in the worksheet area 
at the desired location and drag it till you get the desire shape and size in 
the resultant screen. 



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6.15. Inserting Objects 

StarOffice Calc provides tools for inserting objects like charts, images from 
image editor, formula, etc. in a worksheet. For this purpose, click on the Insert object 
from View -» Toolbar. A floating tool bar appears with the following icons in the order 
listed below. 



1. Insert Chart Icon 

2. Insert Formula Icon 

3. Insert Floating Icon 

4. Insert Movie and Sound Icon 

5. Insert LOE Object Icon 

6. Insert Applet Icon 



Insert Object 

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6.16 Working with charts 

To draw a chart, follow the procedure given below: 



Select the data you want to chart. 

Click on Insert — > Chart or click on the Insert Chart icon 

The cursor becomes a + sign with a mall picture of the graph . Place this 

cursor where you want to insert the chart and click. The Autoformat chart 

window appears. 

It prompts you to enter the area in the worksheet to be charted Enter the 

range as C3:F7 and click Next. 

185 



AutoFormat Chart 



Main Title 




















S^ 
























Ctlm A 







Show text elements in 
' preview 



help 



Choose a variant 



Grid lines 



n£f?J?] 0i! axis HI Z axis 

Data series in: ©Rows O Columns 



Cance 



« Back 



Next » 



i\i 


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Create 



Learn by solving 



The different format of a chart type 



Create a line chart to show the variations of mark secured buy each student in 
different subjects. 





A B C E F 


G 


H 


I 


1 


Student Mark Details of 9 th Standard 




3 




kumarA 


87 


as 


74 


36 


352 


83 




4 | 


AraymflaQJ 


63 


as 


62 


34 


305 


76.25 




^HGovindan S 


63 


76 


73 


75 


2S7 


71 .7E 




^H\./Hlrniinir|uri 


75 


72 


S3 


85 


296 


73,75 




' 1 ^jThamr^haraKi 


75 


46 


52 


64 


237 


59 25 




B 




Students Marks 










9 






*■--■>*■-* 


1 




ID 










*"* - 




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12 




„. 












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13 
































14 






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20 





















The Worksheet with the chart 

6.17. Working with Multiple sheet 

In StarOffice Calc, a spreadsheet contains multiple sheets. Each sheet has its own 
name and a list of sheets appears as tabs at the bottom of the window. 



186 



6.18. Printing Worksheets 

If you click the Print icon ion the function bar (Standard toolbar), all the data i all 
the sheets of your document will bed printed. You can also print a part of the worksheet. 
To do so, select the range to be printed and click on Format -» Print Ranges -» Edit 
and select the print range. Now ,if you click on the print icon, only the selected range will 
be printed. To remove the print range setting click on Format -» Print Ranges -» 
delete. 

The Page View option on the File menu can be used to preview worksheet before 
printing. 

6.19 Database functions in Staroffice Caic. 

Spreadsheets in StarOffice can be used to manage large amounts of data. You 
can sort this data, search for specific information, group information based on some 
criteria, calculate totals, and much more. 

Summary 

* Aspreadsheet is atool for working with numbers. 

* Aspreadsheet program is used to calculate and analyze sets of numbers 

? A spreadsheet is divided into columns and rows. The intersection of row and 
a column is called a cell. A cell is referred to by its address - created by 
combining its column and row headings. 

? Cells can contain values, labels, or formulae. 

? Adatafile created with spreadsheet is called a worksheet. 

* Creating a Worksheets 



? 



7 



? 



? 



The process of creating a worksheet can involve organizing the data, 
entering data, creating formulae, editing, formatting, adding charts, 
analyzing data and printing the worksheet. 

A formula lets you create a value in one cell that is calculated based on the 
values in other cells. 

Formulae follow the order of mathematical operations: exponentiation 
negation, multiplication and division, addition and subtractions. 

Functions are built- in formulae. StarOffice Calc offers a wide variety of 
functions. 



187 



? 



Creating a Worksheet References to cells can be relative or absolute. 



? Data in the worksheet can be formatted in bold, italics and underlined the 
alignment, font, size and color of the contents of the ceils can also be 
changed. Numbers can be formatted as currency, percents and displays with 
or without decimals. 

? You can add pictures, special characters and your own drawings to the 
worksheet. 

? You insert movies, sounds, charts, floating frame Applets and OLE objects in 
worksheet. 

? Charts are used to make data easier to understand. 

? You can define which range of cells on a spreadsheet to print. 

? Spreadsheets have database management capabilities including sorting, 
selecting and printing out reports. 

Exercises 

1. Fill in the blanks. 

1 . you can use a ——to calculate and analyze sets of numbers. 

2. Graphic representations of numbers are known as — ----- 

3. A(n) — — - refers to the file you create with spreadsheet software. 

4. Non-numerical entries are called-—— 

5. The ———identifies the active cell. 

6. The — — - is the sequence of characters used in a formula 

7. you can automatically perform specialized calculations using—— 

8. The two types of cell addressing are -—and— -addressing. 

9. The -—command is used to generate a series. 

1 0. The combined cell column and row headings are known as the cell's— 

1 1 . —is used to inert objects from other application into a worksheet 

12. The —Option on the file menu can be used to preview a worksheet before 
printing. 



188 



111. Answer the following 

1 . Define briefly a spreadsheet and describe its basic structure. 

2. List and describe the other features available with spreadsheet software in 
addition to its ability to calculate numbers. 

3. When entering a formula in a cell, does it matter in which order you enter the 
values and operators? Explain your answer. 

4. Can we change the data present in a cell? If so, how? 

5. How can you generate a series of values? Explain with an example. 

6. What are functions? Howcanyouuse them in your worksheet? 

7. What must you include in a formula, to ensure that the formula will operate on 
a specific value, no matter where the formula might be moved or copied? 

8. What is date arithmetic? Explain. 

9. What spreadsheet feature allows you to represent data visually as a data- 
analysis tool? 

1 0. Explain working with multiple sheets and printing worksheets? 



189 



CHAPTER 7 

INTRODUCTION TO MULTIMEDIA 

7.1 What is multimedia? 

Multimedia is a computer -based presentation technique that incorporates text, 
graphics, sound, animation, and video elements combination of these elements grabs 
the viewers retains it. The multi-sensory inputs address the different learning needs and 
styles of different users and enhance the entries experience for the user. 

7.2 Multi media Applications 

Multimedia application are being used include entertainment, education, research, 
and business communication. 

Multimedia also has an enormous impact on education .With the growing popularity 
of multimedia sophisticated learning packages are used to train and educated people 
world over. 

Multimedia based training is also being extensively used to train and educated 
children in school and colleges. 

Multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry especially to develop 
special effects in movies and animation for cartoon characters. 

Multimedia application that allow users to actively participate instead of just sitting 
by as passive recipients of information are called interactive Multimedia. 

Multimedia is also used for corporate communications and presentations Context 
relevant animation, images and charts help grabbing in viewers attention, and 
highlighting critical pieces of information in corporate presentation. 

Multimedia application are also widely used in the fields of engineering medicine 
and scientific research. 

7.3. Multimedia Elements-Sound, Animation ,and Video 

It is that there are many image formats. Some of them are GIF files. Animates GIF 
files, MPEG files, Shockwave files and Nx View files. 

Sound 

Sound can be stored in several different formats .You will learn more about these 
formats a little later in the chapter. 

190 



Animations 

Animations are primarily used to illustrate or demonstrate an idea or a concept. 
Unlike videos that are usually taken from life animation are abased on drawings. 

Animation can be two or three dimensional. Based on how a2-d animation are create, 
they can be broadly classified into the following 2 categories: 

? Cel- based animations 

? Object-based animations 

Creating a 3-d animation is a3 -step process: 

1. Modeling 

2. Animation 

3. Rendering 
Video 

Like sound video is also records and played back as an analog signal . So you have 
to convert the videos signal into a digital format before including it in a multimedia 
application. 



? 



? 



Lossless compression - Retains the exact image throughout the 
compression. 

Lossy compression provides a comparatively higher radio of compression 
but in some loss of quality. 



Popular Multimedia Formats 

Some popular multimedia formats are as follows: 

The MIDI Format 

The AIFF Format 

The SND Format 

The WAVE Format 

The MP3/MPEG Format 

The AVI Format 

The Windows Media Format 

The QuickTime Format 

The Shockwave Format 

Multimedia Hardware and Software 

Inline Sound And Video 

7.4. Using Multimedia Elements in content 

Indisputably, including multimedia elements in content adds immense appeal to it. 
However, before deciding to include multimedia elements, it is essential to consider one 
major factor. This factor is the file size. Files with multimedia elements tend to be very 
heavy. For example, a 5-second audio file can be as heavy as 1 MB. This, combined with 

191 



the limitations of the medium of presentation can limit, if not totally nullify the impact of the 
presentation. For example, a heavy video or animation file in a WBT may not load 
because of poor bandwidth. Or it may take so long to load that the learner looses interest 
and decides to move on to something else. 
Summery 

? Multimedia application are now becoming very popular 

? Theses application include text sound and videos to protected high quality 
products. 

? Popular used of multimedia are in areas of educations entertaining and 
presentations 

? Special hardware and software for multimedia are video are available in the 
market. 

? These a number of formats in which audio and video are used in multimedia 
application 

? These formats are useful in coding audio video and other special effects in 
creating attractive Web pages applications 

? Developing multimedia contents is very challenging. 

Exercises 

1 . Create a HTML page with text audio images and video. 

2. Note the formats of the audio images and video files provided in the 
accompanying CD. 



192 



CHAPTER 8 
PRESENTATION 

8.1 Introduction 

Among the many tools that are used to communicate to an audience presentation 
are among the most powerful and effective ones .In a presentation, you can include a 
variety of items such as text audio hand draw images and videos. You can further 
enhance the background images slide animation and transition effects. 

8.2 A Basic Presentation 

You can create a presentation in Star-Office using any of the following several different 
ways. 

You can create a new impress presentations from within any star office application 
by choosing Fill — > New — ^ Presentations as shown in figure 8.1 



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Creating a Presentation from any StarOffice Application 

You can also create a new presentation by launching Star office Impress. You can 
do so by choosing Star-All Programs -Star off ice8-lmpress. 

8.2.1 Creating a Presentation using the Presentation Wizard 

For the purpose of this activity let's select Empty Presentation and click Next 
to proceed to the second page of the wizard 

As the name indicates the Select an output medium diction in the lower half of 
page allows you to specify the final output medium for the presentation. 

This page of wizard allows you to specify' the transition effects to be used in the 
presentation . The Select a slide translation section at the top of page allow you to 
choose the transition effect and speed in the slides. 



193 



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Choosing the Type of the Presentation 

The Duration of page spin box allows you to specify the education for their slides 
and Duration of pause spin box allows you to specify the duration for which the 
presentation will pause before it stars again. 



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Choosing the Background and Output Medium of the Presentation 

Checking the show logo check box will display the message "created with 
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Choosing the Slide Transition and Type 

Now, click Create to create the presentation . The star office8impress 
environment with one slide appears 



8.2.2 Creating a presentation without using presentation wizard 



To create a new presentation using a template choose File 
documents or press Shift+Ctrl+N. The window appears 



►new — > templates and 



194 



? In the Templates and Documents dialog that now appears, click the 

Templates icon on the left and then double-click Education. 
Double - click one of the templates, such as Academic Presentation. 

8.2.3 The Star Office Impress Presentation Window 

Normal view: Allow a you to create and edit slides out line view: Allows you to add notes 
to be slides or viewers any exciting notes for the slides noted are typically used by a 
presents to add additional information to a slides 

Handouts view: Allow you to select the slides so that several slides can fit into a page 
this view is typically used when the presentation is to be printer and distributed as a 
handout. 

Slid show view: Allows you to view miniature images of all the slides in the presentation. 
This view is also used rearrange slides. 

Master page: This page can be used to specify basic background information that needs 
to be included in all the slides. For example you can insert a company logo to the slides . 

Layouts : This page displays the various layouts provided by star office impress can 
choose a layout while creating a new slide. 

Customer Animation: This page displays various that allows you to add or modify 
effects to elements of slide. 

Slide Transition : This page displayed various transition effects that can be attached to a 
slide along with other operation that allow you to control the transitions of the slides Note 
that you can have a different transition for each slides in the presentation. 

8.2.4. Savings Presentation 

To save a presentation choose File-Save or click icon if you not saved the 
presentation before the save as dialog box name of the presentation click Save. 



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195 



8.3. Managing a Presentation 

8.3.1 . Staring Presentation 

To start a presentation click the slide icon on the Presentation Toolbar or choose 
slide show — ^ Slide Show or press F5. 

Presentation settings can be adjusted under Slide Show >• Slide Show 

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Slide Show Settings 

Select Custom slide Show to run a customer slide in the order that you defined in 
Slide show — > Custom Slide Show 

8.3.2 Inserting, Deleting and Renaming Slides 

To insert side click the slide button in the presentation toolbar or choose Insert 
— > Slide from the menu bar the new slide uses the page layout of the previous slide. 

If you want to delete a slide select the slide which you want to delete in the Slides 
Pane and press Delete key ;or right click on the slide and choose Delete slide. 

To rename a slide select slide which you want to are rename and choose slide 
Rename slide . Adialogue box appears. 

8.3.3 Changing slide order 

To change the slide order click the slide sorter in the switching presentation view 
tab. 

8.3.4 Sound and video 

To insert a movie in a choose insert — > movie and sound or else click the insert 
movie and sound icon from the insert toolbar. 

To play a movie or sound in an impress presentation 

1 . Open the slide that contains the movies or sound flied 

2. Click the object icon for the or sound file on the slide 

3. Click Play on the Media playback toolbar. 

196 



For movie files the bar also contains a list box where you can select the zoom 
factor for the play back. 

Play icon - Plays the current file. 

Pause icon - Paused or resumes the playback of the current life 

Stop icon - Stops the playback of the current life 

Repeat icon - Plays the file repeatedly. 

Positions slider - Moves to a different positions in the life. 

Mute icon - Turns sound off and on. 

Volume slider - Adjusts the volume. 

Zoom - Adjusts the size of the movie playback. 

Star Office impress enable Media player where you can preview movie and sound 
fields as well as insert these files into the current presentation slide. The media player 
supports many different media formats. 

To open media player window 

Choose Tools — > Media Player 

Click Open icon which is displayed at the lower left corner of the media player 
window. 

Select a video or sound file and view the preview 

Click the Apply icon to apply the selected movie or video file into your 
presentation. 

Close the media player window 

Star slide show by choosing slides show slides show or press the F5 key 

Inserting Objects 

StarOffice Impress provides tools for inserting objects like chars, formula, etc ., 
In a personation. To insert an object in a slide, choose an object from 
Insert — > Objects. 

Insert Formula 

This is used for inserting a formula into the presentation for performing 
calculations. 

Insert OLE Objectives 

This is used to import objects from other application into a presentation. For 
example, StarOffice spreadsheet, formulae, text and even Microsoft application objects 
can be inserted. 



197 



If you want to insert a Microsoft Word Document., choose Further Objects and 
Create New options the Insert OLE Object dialog box and click OK. In the Insert Object 
dialog box, select Microsoft Word Document as objects type and click OK. 

Insert Applet 

This is used to import Applets into the presentation. 
8.3.5 Slide Transitions, Effects and Animations 

8.3.5.1 Automatic Slide Transition 

The easiest way to assign slide transition effects to slides to slides is in Slide View. 
Choose View — > Toolbars — > Slide View. Select the number of slides in the Slides 
view changes according to the number specified in the Slides Per Row spin box . The 
number of slides in he Slides view changes according to the number specified in the 
Slides Per Row spin box. The Slide view displays the slides in certain numbers 
specified in the Slides Per Row spin box. 

8.3.5.2 Effects for Objects 

All these effects can be assigned using the Normal view (View — > Normal 
view). 

Choose Custom Animation from Slide Show — > Custom Animation. First 
you must select the object to which you want to apply the effect. 

Click Add in Modify Effect. The Custom Animation window appears. 

Then select the desired effect. Click the OK button. You can also have your 
object fade in (in the Custom Animation window, on the Entrance tab under Special 
categoryO and additionally, fade out (in the Custom Animation window, on the Exit tab 
under Special category) per mouse-click. 

8.3.5.3 Changing Slide Background 

Choose Format — > Page — > background. Select the background fill from 
the following options. 

Colour 
Gradient 
Hatching 
Bitmap Image. 

In this example, Colour is selected as the Fill type, Note that the list box below 



198 



In the Fill area, do one of the following: 

? Select Colour.and then click a color in th list. 

? Select Gradient, and then click a gradient style in the list. 

? Select Hatching, and then click a hatching style in the list. 

? Select Bitmap, and then click Bitmap image in the list. 

8.3.5.4 Applying a Slide design to a Master Slide 
To apply a new slide design: 

Select Format — > Slide design. A dialog b ox appears 

Do one of the following: 

To apply the slide design to all of the slides in your presentation, select the 
Exchange background page check box. 

To apply the slide design to the current slide only, clear the Exchange 
background page check box. 

Click Load. A window appears. 

Under Categories, select a slide design. 

Under Templates, select a template with the design that you want to apply. 
To preview the template, click More, and then select the Preview check box. 

Click OK to see the change in the master slide. 

8.3.5.5 Presentation Styles 

Activate the outline view mode by choosing menu View — > Outline View. 

Open the Stylist either by choosing Format — ^ Styles and Formatting or 

with the F1 1 key. The window appears. 

? The cursor is now blinking next to the small icon for slide. 1 . Enter the desired 
text, for example first Page This will be the title for slide 1 . 

? If you press the Enter key, a small icon for slide 2 appears in the next line of he 
Outline vie. Enter a title for the second slide. For example, Second Page. 

? Press the enter key again. Now press the Tab key before you enter any text. 
By doing that, you ensure that the text you then enter here will be a subtitle on 
slide 2. 



199 



? you can also first start entering the text for the subtitle and then press the Tab 
key. In case, if you have j already entered text in the line, you will see a 
message, which warns you that with n this action. You will delete the existing 
text. To delete click OK. 

? Continue to enter more subtitles of the first level on page two .By pressing 
the Tab key, you move the line down one level and with Shift + Tab one level 
up. This enables you to even make a new slide out of a sub-topic. 

8.4. Customizing a Presentation 

To create a custom slide show: 

a. Choose Slide Show — > Custom Slide Shows, and then click New. 

b. Enter a name for your slide show in the Name box. 

c. Under Existing Slides, select the slides you want to add to your slide show, 
and click the » button. Hold down Shift to select a range of slides, or Ctrl to 
select multiple slides. 

d. You can change the order of the slides in your custom slide show, by 
dragging and dropping the slides under Selected Slides. 

e. Click Ok. 

To Start a custom slide show: 

• . Choose Slide Show — > Custom Slide Show. 

• . Select the slide show you want to start from the list. 

• . Click Start 

8.4.1 . Options for Running a Slide Show 

To start a slide show from the current slide. 

1. Choose Tools — > Options — > StarOffice Impress — > General. 
A window as shown in the appears. 

2. In the Start presentation area, select Always with current page check box. 

8.4.2. To hide a slide 

• . Select the slide(s) that you want to hide in the slide show. 
* . Choose Slide Show -» Show/ Hide slide. 



200 



8.4.3. To show a hidden slide 

Select the slide(s) that you want to hide form the Slides Pane. Choose Slide Show 
— > Show/Hide to show the slide in the slide show. 

8.4.4. Rehearse Timings of Slide Changes 

To record a show with rehearse timings: 

</ . Open a presentation, and switch of Normal View. 

v. Start the show with the Rehearse Timings from Slide Show menu. 

• . When i is time to advance to the next slide, click the timer. Continue for all 

slides in your presentation. 

• . StarOff ice has recorded the display time for each slide. 

* . If you want the whole presentation to auto-repeat, open the menu Slide 
Show — > Slide Show Settings. 

• . Select Auto and then click OK. 
8.5. Printing Presentations 

8.5.1. Default Printer Settings 

To set the default printing options for StarOffice Impress, choose 
Tools — > Options — > StarOffice Impress — > Print. 

8.5.1.1. Setting printer options for the current presentation 
Choose File — > Print. 

Click Options, and then select the printer options. 

These settings override the default printer options in Tools — > Options 
— > StarOffice Impress — > Print for the current print job only. 

8.5.1.2. Printing a range of slides 
Choose File — > Print. 

In the Print range area, click pages. 

Enter the numbers of slides to print in the Pages box, and then click OK. 



201 



8.5.1 .3. Printing a Slide to Fit a Paper Size 

You can reduce the size of a slide when you print, so that the slide can fit on a 
printed page. 

Open the document that you want to print. 

In Normal View, Choose format — > Page, and then Page tab. 

In Layout settings area, select the Fit object to paper format check box. 

In the paper format area, select a Format. 

8.5.2. Creating and Printing Handouts 

If you want to provide handouts you can use the Handout View mode. Since the 
handouts contain both the individual slides and space for notes, they can be a very helpful 
presentation aid. 

8.5.3. Organizing and Printing Notes 

Enter notes for individual slides in the Notes view. 
You can access the Notes view in the view bar. 
To print slide notes: 

1. Choose File — > Print and click Options 

2. In the Printer Options dialog, select Notes in the Contents area and click Ok. 

3. In the Print dialog, select the slides that you want to print and click Ok. 

8.5.4. Exporting Presentations 

StarOffice Impress automatically starts a wizard to help you to produce an 
attractive HTML presentation. A number of HTML pages are created that are connected 
to one another by hyperlinks and in which the graphics are saved as GIF or JPEG images. 
You can work on these HTML pages in the text module of StarOffice to give them 
headings and additional hyperlinks, for example. 

Choose File — > Export. 

Select the file format as HTML Document (StarOffice Impress). 

Enter a file name and click Save. 

This opens the HTML Export wizard. 



202 



In the Publication Type option, select Standard HTML format to create html 
pages without frames. 

Your next screen choice allows you to enter contact information. Enter it if you 
wish. 

Summary 

* A slide show is a series of slides, or pages, that present information on a 
specific topics. 

>/ A presentation is used while speaking to a group, with a presentation to 
support and organize your information. 

* Some presentations, or slide shows, can be used without a speaker, like a 
collection of photographs. 

* Creating a Presentation. 

v A presentation can be created using a template or can be created from 
scratch. 

* An automatic presentation flips through the slides at a defined duration until 
the Escape key is pressed. 

v Normal, Outline, Notes, Handout, Slide Sorter views helps us to work with 
slides in ease to different needs. 

v A presentation can contain different type of objects like Picture, Movies, 
Sound, Chart, Spreadsheet and other OLE objects. 

• A presentation can be exported in different format like Web page, PDF, SWF, 
JPEG and so on. 

</ Slides in Impress can be designed according to different needs, by using 
Color, Gradient, Hatching and Bitmap Image styles. 

>/ A master slide determines the text formatting style for the title and outline and 
the background design for individual slide. 

• Like slides, Objects in your slide can have various effects, like rolling into your 
presentation from the left slide, the text can be slowly drawn onscreen, and so 
on using Custom Animation effects. 

</ Custom slide show allows you to display important slides during a 
presentation. 

203 



• StarOffice Impress allows you to start slide shows from the current slide as 
well as hide slides during a slide show. 

</ Slides in a presentation can be printed as a handout, so that several slides 
can be printed on a single page of paper. 

* StarOffice Impress enables Media Player where you can preview movie and 
sound files as well as insert these files into the current presentation slide. 

• The Media Player embedded in StarOffice Impress supports different audio 
and video file formats. 



Exercises 

Fill in the blanks 

1 . A'slide show' is a series of pages that are ...................... 

2. A presentation can be created from scratch or from .................. 

3. Five types of views are Norma, Outline, Notes, .................and 

4. ............................ Gives effect to an object in a slide. 



5. In ............................. View mode, all the slide titles will appear in a list a.along 

with the headings and sub-topics. 

6. By pressing ..................... Key in the keyboard the view of the slide can be 

enlarged. 

7. To select an object that is covered by another object, hold down ............... Key 

and click the object. 



204 



8. .................... Slide determines the text formatting style for the title and 

outline. 

9. ..................... Window allows us to quickly jump from one slide to other slide or 

move between open files. 

1 Is used preview movie or sound files in a slide. 

Answer the following 

1 . Define briefly about Impress and describe how to create a presentation. 

2. List and describe the features of Impress. 

3. Explain the steps of Incorporating Slide Show Effects. 

4. Explain the steps of exporting a presentation as web pages. 

5. What is custom Animation? Explain the process of animating objects in a 
slide. 

6. What is slide transition? Explain the process of applying transition to slides. 

7. How to include pictures, movies and other OLE objects in a presentation? 

8. What is 'Rehearse Timings'? Explain in detail. 

9. Explain about 'Custom Slide Show' in detail. 

1 0. Explain how to print a range of slides and also explain how to print a slide to fit 
a paper size? 



205 



ANNUAL COMMON EXAM - MODEL QUESTION PAPER 



Register 
Number 



Part 111 - Vocational Subjects 
OFFICE SECRETARYSHIP - Paper I 

Under Vocational Stream 

TYPEWRITING - ENGLISH (Practical) 

Time allowed : 2 1 /2 Hrs Max. Marks : 150 

Time : 15 mts Marks : 50 



PART -A 



The growth of population in the 
world has assumed an alarming stage. 
It has become more a world problem 
affecting the entire world. However 
the problem, has become more 
important, to countries, with larger 
population, like India, china, Russia, 
etc. The population of the world has 
grown from 250 millions 4 billions 
about 2000 years, since the birth of 
Jesus. The growth of population has 
direct bearing on the development of 
the country; because of growing 
numbers and limited sources, the per 
capita consumpution of all the goods 
and services are necessarily limited in 
terms of food, clothing, housing, 
schooling, education and health needs 
etc: 

The development of a country primarily 
rests in proper planning and execution 



programmes. The planning of a 
scheme normally depends on the 
estimated total population, as 
insignificant, by also relates problems 
to the society as well as to (the country. 
Therefore the social and economic 
problems could not be solved unless 
the growth of population is checked by 
reducing the bring rate at least for a few 
decades to come. 

The only way to save the world 
from the menace of the population 
growth is proper Family Planning 
implemented by the government, with 
the active co-operation of the people. 
The family planning should also 
become an integral part of the overall 
development programme. The 
programme is not however new and is 



206 



already in vogue; but not with great, 
dedication or zeal. There is also the, 
administrative machinery and people 
conversant with the programme and 
conscious of the menace of the growth of 
population. The government should 
have the determination to implement the 
programmer and must give a call to the 
people for their unqualified support.the 
active co-operation of the people. The 
family planning should also become an 
integral part of the overall development 
programme. The programme is not 
however new and is already in vogue; 
but not with great, dedication or zeal. 
There is also the, administrative 
machinery and people conversant with 
the programme and conscious of the 
menace of the growth of population. The 
government should have the 
determination to implement the 
programmer and must give a call to the 
people for their unqualified support. 

One of the approaches to the 
problem should be non-clinical; women's 
education and training and involving 
womens participation in the labour 
force,. Outside the house. Among the 
clinical methods, the clinical methods 



including Nirodh and Diaphragm are 
important and will have the desired 
effect in checking the growth. The 
adoption of vasectomy and tubectomy 
is also generally acceptable to most of 
the people. The above methods 
should therefore be adopted in a large 
scale. The use of oral, should be made 
more popular . The abortion should be 
made as legal, with statutory backing. 
The Government should also provide a 
number of incentives, to ensure, that 
the people themselves, took sincere 
interest, in the programme, 
training and womens participation in 
the labour force,. Outside the house. 
Among the clinical methods, the clinical 
methods including Nirodh and 
Diaphragm are important and will have 
the desired effect in checking the 
growth. The adoption of vasectomy 
and tubectomy is also generally 
acceptable to most of the people. The 
above methods should therefore be 
adopted in a large scale. The use of 
oral, should be made more popular . 
The abortion should be made as legal, 
with statutory backing. The 
Government should also provide a 
number of incentives, to ensure, that 
the people themselves, took sincere 
interest, in the programme. 



207 



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Marks : 20 



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Question No: 2 Marks : 25 

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sheets and rule up: 






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Question No.3 

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Mark : 15 

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Cro ^OP.^ 



THARAW 







r^.iidTiVxA'i 



O-Vs 












-S-e c "r^Wj 



r 



211 



Question No: 4 Mark : 20 



Tffm. nek frtUurC^fr 



Notification 



7^ 



j$rmu*JLJL &». ffU tr+rtfAf MS. rro •*?%*)*?, t±*rlJ2 

Sevietaruf, fo (fat. 
212 



Part-C 

Question No.5 Marks: 20 

Answer any ten of the following 

Note:- Answers should be typed and not in hand written. 
All questions carry equal marks: 

1 . What are the three kinds of cylinder? 

2. What are the two kinds of typewriters? 

3. How many rows in the keyboard? 

4. How many character keys in your keyboard? 

5. Name some non character keys? 

6. What are the parts should be oiled? 

7. Name the two dogs? 

8. How can you identify your typewriter? 

9. What are two kinds of stencils? 

10. What are the accessories required for cleaning the typewriter? 

1 1 . What are two kinds of envelopes? 

1 2. What is the use of paper table? 

13. What is the use of Receiving Tray? 

14. Which address need not type on the window envelope? 

1 5. What are two accessories used to put signature on the stencii paper? 



213 



IV. For Practice : 

Type the following Capital and Liabilities in two separate sheets and ruled up: 



<Th£ NaTional Trading Co. LTD. 
R«Um*«. iVicei At aI- 3©te> 3ur»e Wo 



>^OTHoR.lffeD CA"PtTAL 
PA*.J*v«nCA £U4A«i 

>^ "*? * 

fit. f R«««m*« L £**.pLwt 



^o^C^p t^tT 



uc 



|««OED £>TPlTAL- 



M'<tyi 



i*. 



Cmft 




(5 ^L d*. /kuJb 

T6k«.L 



^.«i,7i^ 



lot. jkgg ^tflmi n^/ f ah 1/«- * ^*- ol»»-a*^«X 




^ (*l^v. 1951. 






214 



Type the following Profit and Loss Account in two separate sheets and ruled up: 



Iaa*. 






3l#U fffeukHfli. 



V 



WLo-t* 



<to 









W*Ut 



- Pao 



^■rffcv* 



PowEfl AND ) COWtttrnVTioN 



H 






(ok*! 



G* p. 
a»,s*,si7 o« 



35^5,^14- 4 J 
25,Ol4J7 <?l 



js.aaa. To) k* 



H P-K^ 



fi« s*Ii* 



R«~b 



8*. P. 



69,oC,«^s li 

2i>7, <Uf «s 






2 ,,55,40,^3 4 9b 



(3,41,341 IP 
l,3o,6s3 £7, 



-» a,a it4 t o /t*t 



*. 



ToTaj 






i* 



>*l l_4»v* Ac-«-»u*xt a^v/- tut, c«A-tt*^ its. 



6u>4. 






Qs**ruxAa.m*y tfu-i^t K/aVkjO^nJ ^^» 



215 



Type the following Income and Expenditure in two separate sheets and ruled up: 



U**>i *•*■< 



(3f#b M**., HTT) 
INCOMC 



<v* 



Af*. fl^ 3 K t*A^b 



u.«. 



Co*" m vv* I Oft. 
Amis. : Uv*U*^»^*V^^^ >*" 

<7©bJ- 



1 



57441 sq 

8S,5So 8o 



(2*. 



1,43,211 SI 
74,2fll 2° 







1! 






tCbtp<At' t '«»* v ** **»• 3l>*b f\*U. 1977, 
&Umi, liATHftw £. Nathan, 

Sofe 7~.nO. l»77. >Wito\£ jf*, 



ExPEND|*Tu/tE 



u.t, 



n I"*) *irvT£ MAttlC AKD fi * ^*/4 J 






U A4.t*A^S « gM. 



-Tot*! 




66,0 5a So 

as^7»o 7s 



fc^io 75 
1 5, J<*S St 

12,5 7o flb 



2, 41, &(►*♦ 3* 



216 



V. SYLLABUS: 



VOCATIONAL GROUP 

SYLLABUS FOR OFFICE SECRETARYSHIP 

(Typewriting AND Computer Operation) 



1 . Title of the Vocational Programme 

2. Occupational Area 

3. General Objectives 



Practical 



4. Employment Opportunities 



5. Agencies likely to assist in the Programme 



6 Related subjects from General 
Education Programme and from 
Secretarial Practice Course 



Office Secretaryship 

(with typewriting component of 

Computer Operation) 

Business , Commerce & 

Office Management 

To develop skills necessary to act as 

Office Secretary /Accountant & to 

Organize an off! 

i) to develop the typing skill & 

ii) to Operate Computer Systems 

Private sectors mainly and in 
Government/Public sector to an Extent 

Department of Management skills 
In the Universities / Colleges 

1. Commerce 

2. Accountancy / Computer Science 

3. Management Principle and 
Office Management 



ALLOCATION OF PERIODS 
II -YEAR PRACTICAL -I 

(Typewriting) 
PRACTICAL - II (Computer Operation) 


Periods per i 
Theory 
1 


week 


Practical 
4 
2 


Total 
5 
2 




1 




6 


7 


PRACTICAL - 1 
(Typewriting) 
PRACTICAL - II 
(Computer Operation) 


Periods per year 
Theory Practical 
30 120 

60 


Total 
150 

60 




30 




180 


210 



217 



VOCATIONAL GROUP 
SYLLABUS FOR OFFICE SECRETARYSHIP 
(Typewriting AND Computer Operation) 

II YEAR PRACTICAL -I (TYPEWRITING) 

I. EXTERNAL EXAMINATION MARKS : 150 MARKS 

II. INTERNAL EXAMINATION MARKS : 50 MARKS 

I) PRACTICAL -I (TYPEWRITING) - 25 MARKS 

ii) PRACTICAL -II (COMPUTER OPERATION) -25 MARKS 

DETAILS OF EXTERNAL EXAMS AND DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS - (Time: 2:30 Hrs) 

PART A SPEED 15 MINUTES 

15 minutes SPEED Passage with 225 strokes per minute not exceeding three paragraphs 
consisting of 3375 strokes (without heading) (45 W.P.M) 

PART B MANUSCRIPTS 

Question No: 1 Statistical statement (Vertical statement) 20 MARKS 

Question No: 2 Balance Sheet (Double sided) -Any One 

i) Liabilities & Assets 
ii) Income & Expenditure 
iii) Profit & Loss Account .....25 MARKS 

Question No: 3 Display - (Any One) 

i) Advertisement 

ii) Invitation 

iii) Notice 

iv) Programme .....15 MARKS 

Question No: 4 Any one of the following: 

i) Demi-Official Letter 

ii) Government Order/ Government Memorandum 

iii) Notification 

iv) Official Proceedings .....20 MARKS 

PART C MECHANISM 

Question No:5 Objective type question 20 MARKS 

(Answer written In pen or pencil will not be Considered for valuation) 

(Any 10 questions out of 15 questions (10x2=20) 
(Generally 1 to 1 questions from parts of the typewriter, Defects and 
rectification) & 11 to 15: Duplicator and its Parts, uses Stencil cutting and taking copies. 
Apart from the above the students must have knowledge of the Following: 

Note: 1 Knowledge of typing Display Question like Invitation, 

Programme, Notice and Advertisement on a stencil sheet is Essential 

2 Renewal of Ribbon 

3 Knowledge of Cleaning and Oiling the Typewrite 

4 Knowledge of Duplicator Operation 

5 Knowledge of taking copies by using carbon 

218 



II. INTERNAL EXAMINATION MARKS : 50 



PRACTICAL - I (TYPEWRITING) - INTERNAL ASSESSMENT 



25 MARKS 



I) Record work : Preparation of Albums, Names of part 

Cleaning & Oiling, Envelope addressing, etc., 
ii) Maintenance of files and Note Book & etc., 
ii) Performance in monthly tests & terminal exams 
iv) Attendance & Attitude 
v) Typewriter maintenance in the class room 

PRACTICAL- II (COMPUTER OPERATION) - INTERNAL ASSESSMENT 



...5 marks 
....5 marks 
...5 marks 
... 5 marks 
....5 marks 

25MARKS 



Simple Projects related to different subjects to be given for Internal Assessment/ during 
class hours. 

- Exercises done using the Typewriter can be practiced and prepared on the 
Computer Systems to Compare and Contrast the differences and also learn the use of 
both types of Keyboards. 

- Twenty Five marks to be allotted for Computer Oriented Exercises as per the 
prescribed Workbooks. 

- Records to be maintained for this to enable marking both by externals and the 
internals at the time of Examinations. 

- Cumulative Assessment method to be followed with a break of FIVE for each category 

- summed up with Typewriting exercises to make a Total of FIFTY as internals 



- TWENTY FIVE TO BE SPLIT INTO FIVE CREDITS; 
i) Record work : 



....5 marks 



ii) Maintenance of files and work Book & etc., 

iii) Performance in monthly tests from 1 to 8 Chapters 

iv) Attendance & Attitude 

v) Computer system maintenance in the class room 



....5 marks 
....5 marks 
....5 marks 
5 marks 



219 



VOCATIONAL GROUP 

DRAFT SYLLABUS FOR OFFICE SECRETARYSHIP 
(Typewriting AND Computer Operation) 
FOR PLUS TWO (»2) 



S.N 


MONTH 


OBJECTIVES 


CONTENTS 


PRACT1CALS 


1. 


June 












Practical-) (Typewriting) 


Practical -J (Typewriting) 


Practical-I (Typewriting) 






The students learn 


Speed practice - 


Practicing speed - 






typing skill and speed 


45 words per minute 


Given passage should 






practice 




be typed in given time 






Practical - II 


Practical - II 


Practical - II 






(Computer Operation) 


(Computer Operation) 


(Computer Operation) 






An Introduction to star 


1:1 An Introduction to 








office: 


Star Office. 


Practicing Star Office 






CHAPTER:! 


1:2 Creating a New 


j 






Understanding the 


Document using Star 








Creation of a Document 


Writer 








in Writer and working with 


1:3 Entering Text in the 








Ihe same 


Document 

1:4 Saving. Closing and 
Opening Documents 




2. 


July 












Practical-! (Typewriting) 


Practical -1 (Typewriting) 
(Vertical Statement) 


Practical-l(Type writing) 






Speed (45W.P.M) 


A Tabular Statement 


Speed practice - 






and learning to type 


giving particulars of 


Vertical statement 






Statistical Matter 


certain thing or 


Should be typed with 






(Vertical Statement) 


achievement. The 
particulars generally 
occupying the first 
column and Ihe 
figures Occupying 
the other columns. 


proper calculation 






Practical - II 


Practical - II 


Practical - II 






(Computer Operation) 


(Computer Operation) 


(Computer Operation) 






CHAPTER :l 


1:5 Moving around the 

Document 

1:6 Scrolling the 

Document 


Practicing Star Office 








1 


7 Correcting Mistakes 










1 


8 Inserting Text 










1 


9 Selecting Text 










1 


10 Moving the Text 










1 


1 1 Copying the Text 










1 


12 Finding and 










Replacing 










the Text 








First Mid- 


Term Test 





220 





August 


Practical-] (Typewriting) 


Practical-I (Typewriting) 


Practical-I (Typewriting) 


3 


Learning Balance Sheet 


Balance Sheet 


Practicing the Balance 


mla 




- typing in two 


A Statement showing 


Sheet in two separate 






separate sheets 


the Assets &Liabilities 
of a business concern at 
End of a financial 
period duly certified by 
the Auditors. So as, 
Income & Expenditure, 
Profit & Loss Account 
Receipts & Payments 
Should be followed 

Practical -II 


sheets with proper 
calculation 






Practical - II 


(Computer Operation) 


Practical - II 






(Computer Operation) 


CHAPTER :U 


(Computer Operation) 






CHAPTER :H 


2:1 Formatting options 


CHAPTER :H 






TEXT FORMATTING: 


2:2 Paragraph 








The Students learn the 


Alignment 


Practicing Text 






importance and the purpose 
of formatting the text 


2:3 Indenting Text 
2:4 Modifying Line 

Spacing 
2:5 Creating Bullets 


Formatting- 
Star office Help 








Summary & Exercises 








and Numbered List 










2:6 Formatting Using 










Styles 










2:7 Star office Help 










Summary & Exercises 










CHAPTER-HI 










3:1 Checking Spelling while 








CHAPTER-m 


Typing 


CHAPTER-HI 






CORRECTING 


3:2 Checking the Spelling 








SPELLING MISTAKES 

The Need for following 
grammatical rules in text 


After the Document is 
Typed 
3:3 Auto Correct Entry 


Practicing in Correcting 
the spelling mistakes by 
using this option 






highlighted in this Chapter 


3:4 Creating Auto Correct 








Entry Summary and 










Exercise 





221 



4. 



September 



Practkal-I (Typewriting) 
Learning Display in an 
Artistical manner- 
Advertisement and 
Notice 



Practical - II 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :IV 
WORKING WITH 
TABLE: 

The possibility of Creating 
Tables in the Text 
Document for Clarity of 
Numerical Data as and 
when needed is understood 



CHAPTER :V 
PAGE FORMATING 

Aligning the page/s in the 
Text Document by making 
alterations in the line 
spacing margins to suit the 
'Type" of document is 
learnt 



Practical-! (Typewriting) 
Advertisement: 

Generally displayed by 
business concerns for 
introducing their 
products or for 
increasing their sales, 
to gain publicity in the 
case of film shows and 
other types of 
entertainments, to 
convey important 
information to the 
public, etc., 

Notice: Sent by Limited 
Companies and 
Registered 
.Associations etc., to 
their members, Auction 
Notice, Legal notices , 
warning notices etc., 
published in 
newspapers 

Practical — II 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :IV 

4:1 Creating a Simple Table 
4:2 Entering Data in the 

Table 
4:3 Adding o Deleting Rows 

and Columns 
4:4 Changing the Row and 

Columns Width 
4:5 Table Formatting Tool 

Bar Summary & 

Exercises 

CHAPTER :V 

5:1 Changing the Margin 
5:2 Changing Page 

Orientation 
5:3 Creating Header and 

Footer Summary & 

Exercises 



Practical-I (Typewriting) 
Practicing the display in 
an artistical manner- 
From Manuscript 



Practical - H 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :IV 

Practicing 

Working with Tables 
-Summary & Exercises 



CHAPTER :V 

Practicing the page 
formatting 



Quarterly Examination 



222 



Practical- 1 (Typewriting) 


Practical-I (Typewriting) 


Practical-I (Typewriting) 


Learning Display in an 


Advertisement: Generally 


Practicing the display in an 


Artistical manner- 


displayed by business 


artistical manner- From 


Advertisement and Notice 


concerns for introducing their 
products or for increasing 
their sales, to gain publicity in 
the case of film shows and 
other types of entertainments, 
to convey important 
information to the public, etc., 
Notice: Sent by Limited 
Companies and Registered 
.Associations etc., to their 
members, Auction Notice, 
Legal notices , warning 
notices etc., published in 
newspapers 

Practical - U 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :1V 

4:1 Creating a Simple Table 
4:2 Entering Data in the 


Manuscript 


Practical - II 


Table 




(Computer Operation) 


4:3 Adding o Deleting Rows 


Practical - U 


CHAPTER :IV 


and Columns 


(Computer Operation) 


WORKING WITH TABLE: 


4:4 Changing the Row and 


CHAPTER :IV 


The possibility of Creating 


Columns Width 




Tables in the Text Document for 


4:5 Table Formatting Tool 




Clarity of Numerical Data as and 


Bar Summary & 


Practicing 


when needed is understood 


Exercises 

CHAPTER :V 

5:1 Changing the Margin 


Working with Tables 
-Summary & Exercises 


CHAPTER :V 


5:2 Changing Page 




PAGE FORMATING 


Orientation 




Aligning the page/s in the Text 


5:3 Creating Header and 




Document by making alterations in 


Footer Summary & 




the line spacing margins to suit the 


Exercises 


CHAPTER :V 


"Type" of document is learnt 




Practicing the page formatting 


Quarterly E 


examination 





223 



October Practical-I (Typewriting 

To learn the Invitation 
and Programme in 

displaying artistically 
manner and learn the 
computer mechanism. 



Practical - II 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :VI 

SPREADSHEET: 

Importance of Tables/Work 
Sheets for manipulating 
Numerical Data and to 
perform Calculations 
creating graphical charts or 
the data is understood 



Practical-I (Typewriting 
Invitation: Sent inviting 
persons to attend an 
arranged function such 

as marriage, meeting 
etc,, 

Programme: To convey 
to the invitees the 
sequence of events and 
the time and place of 
any arranged function. 
Practical - II 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :VI 
6:1 Introduction 
6:2 Working with Star 

Office Calculation 
6:3 Editing the Data ink the 

Worksheet 
6:4 Creating Formulae 
6:5 Fill Command 
6:6 Cell Referencing 
6:7 Using Functions 
6:8 Date Arithmetic 
6:9 Formatting the 

Worksheet 
6:10 Changing Column 

Width and Row Height 
6:11 Inserting Cells, Rows 

and Columns 
6:12 Deleting Cells, Rows 

and Columns 
6:13 Inserting Pictures and 

Special Characters 
6:14 Drawing in a 

Spreadsheet 
6:15 Inserting Objects 
6:16 Working with Charts 
6:17 Working with Multiple 

Sheets 
6:18 Printing Worksheets 
6:19 Database Function in 

Star office Calculation 

Summary & Exercises 



Practical-I (Typewriting 
Mechanism: 



Practical - H 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :V 

Practicing the page 
formatting 



224 



6. 


November 


Practical-I (Typewriting 
To learn mechanism 
and Official 
Proceedings letter 

Practical - II 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :VII 
INTRODUCTION TO 
MULTIMEDIA 
To know, learn and 
comprehend the various 
types of File and their 
Formats while handling 
Audio, Vide, and und and 
associated Files 


Practical-I (Typewriting 
mechanism is to be 
taught. 

Official Proceedings: 
Issued by a Govt, 
authority making 
appointments and 
transfers, increments, 
leave etc., 

Practical - II 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :VTI 

7:1 What is Multimedia? 
7:2 Multimedia 

Applications 
7:3 Multimedia 

Applications 
7:4 Using Multimedia 

Elements in Content 

Summary & Exercises 


Practical-I (Typewriting 
Manuscript Official 
proceeding should be 
typed in proper way 

Practical- II 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :VII 

Practicing Multimedia 
Applications 
Summary & Exercise 






Second Mid-term Test. 




7. 


December 


Practical-I (Typewriting 
To learn the Official 
letter and Demi- 
Official letter 

Practical -II 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :Vm 
PRESENTATION: 

The students learn to Create 
Slide shows using the 
application and will also be 


Practical-I (Typewriting 
Official letter: Govt, to 
other authority: A letter 
from a Govt. Or quasi 
Govt. Office to another 
Govt, or quasi Govt, 
office or firm or an 
individual. 
Demi-Official letter: A 
letter written by a Govt, 
or quasi -Government 
Officer to another 
Officer byname with a 
request to give 
immediate or personal 
attention to a matter. 

Practical - n 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :Vin 

8:1 Introduction 
8:2 A Basic Presentation 
8:3 Managing a Presentation 
8:4 Customizing a 
Presentation 


Practical-I (Typewriting 
Manuscript Official 
letters and Demi-Official 
letters should be typed 
with necessary changes 

Practical- II 
(Computer Operation) 
CHAPTER :VIII 

Practicing Basic Presentation 
-Summary & Exercises 



225 







Half- Yearly Examination 




8. 


January 


Practical -1 (Typewriting 

Government 


Practical-I (Typewriting 

A Communication 


Practical-I (Typewriting 

Manuscript 






Memorandum 


from Government to 
its subordinate 
offices. 


Government 
Memorandum are 
typed with necessary 
changes 






Practical - II 










(Computer Operation) 


Practical - II 








Using Workbook 
Assignments to be 
done 


(Computer Operation) 

Prescribed work 
book and the 
Assignments to be 
done 


Practical - II 
(Computer Operation) 

Small Project Work 






REVISION TEST 





226